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International Concrete Abstracts Portal

Showing 1-10 of 25 Abstracts search results

Document: 

SP122-24

Date: 

June 1, 1990

Author(s):

Mohammed Maslehuddin

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

122

Abstract:

The service conditions for concrete construction in the coastal areas of the Arabian Gulf are considered to be those of one of the most aggressive environments in the world. Deterioration of hardened cement paste due to salt attack is one of the leading reasons for poor performance of concrete structures in this region. Calcium, magnesium, sodium salts of sulfates, chlorides, and carbonates extensively contaminate the ground, groundwater, and the aggregates. In such an environment, structures built with concrete which can be rated as good in temperate climatic conditions can hardly last for a decade or two. Field and laboratory studies are in progress at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, to formulate preventive measures. As a part of this endeavor, the performance of in-service concrete structures is monitored. This paper details the investigations carried out to evaluate the performance of these concrete structures. Data developed in this investigation show that the aggressive service environment is the major cause for concrete deterioration, as such appropriate mix design techniques and construction practices are to be adopted for the production of a very dense and impermeable concrete.

10.14359/3764


Document: 

SP122-23

Date: 

June 1, 1990

Author(s):

David J. Akers

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

122

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete masonry structures can be effectively used in corrosive environments provided that the design is based upon a rational assessment of the exposure condition. An investigation of wall that had 6000 g of muriatic acid and 11,000 g of sodium hypochlorite stored along its exterior face indicated accelerated deterioration of the wall due to inadequate design and no protection afforded to the wall when the building's usage was changed from general warehouse to chemical storage. Poor construction practices also contributed to the distressed condition. The investigation utilized electrical, visual, and chemical means of assessing the structures's condition. The primary tool was a copper-copper sulfate (Cu-CuSO4) half cell conforming to ASTM C 876. The resulting equipotential contour map provided valuable information regarding the wall's corrosion potential. Visual observations of exposed, corroded reinforcing steel confirmed the half-cell readings. Chemical analysis of block, mortar, and grout samples extracted from the wall revealed high but inconsistent water-soluble chloride ion contents.

10.14359/3754


Document: 

SP122-22

Date: 

June 1, 1990

Author(s):

D. Bjegovic, V. Ukraincik, and Z. Beus

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

122

Abstract:

A characteristic example of reinforced concrete structural damage in an urban environment after 25 years' service is the east end of a stadium in Zagreb, Yugoslavia, for 11,000 spectators. This paper presents research works that served as a basis for the design of repairs to prolong the structure's service life. The damage is classified by types. The basic causes of the damage are explained with a detailed description of the influence of carbon dioxide from the air on the concrete. The repair design is described. The basic principle in repairing the upper and lower surface of the stand was that the materials and construction methods must be compatible with the existing concrete and also meet durability criteria. The repair design prescribes conditions for the materials, construction methods, and durability criteria. The paper presents preliminary investigations to select the optimum composition of a mortar that complies with the criteria required by the design. The influence of two polymer dispersions based on acryl and latex, as well as the influence of silica fume added to the mortar, are investigated. To repair the stand slab, the selected mortar applied was the cement mortar modified by added silica fume and superplasticizer to obtain a dense and compact composition and increased chemical resistance. The proposed solution for the lower surface was shotcrete improved by special admixtures. In designing the overlay, care was exercised that the additional load should not require strengthening of the stand structure. Acceptance of the repair work performed is outlined.

10.14359/3418


Document: 

SP122-21

Date: 

June 1, 1990

Author(s):

Alexander M. Vaysburd

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

122

Abstract:

During the 12 years since construction of the bridge, cracking and spalling have developed in the concrete superstructure, predominantly on the underside of the bridge deck in the area of expansion and construction joints. The evidence indicates the deterioration was initiated by leakage of expansion and construction joints, and that poor performance should be attributed to design and construction practices whose effectiveness falls short of the environmental demands. Moisture, deicing salts, and debris that spill through the joints had deteriorated concrete at an accelerated rate and penetrated to the reinforcing steel. The concrete breakdown caused by corrosion of reinforcing steel, as well as from freezing and thawing action, and the expansion resulting from alkali-aggregate reaction damaged the bearing areas of cantilever spans and adjacent parts of suspended slabs, and was a cause for concern for the bridge's structural integrity. The paper addresses the main factors involved in the initiation phase of the corrosion mechanism: carbonation, chloride diffusion, and water penetration into concrete. The selected materials and methods are discussed, as well as importance of compatibility of materials for durable repairs. The paper outlines a need to integrate knowledge and understanding of the mechanism of deterioration with concrete design, materials, and methods of repairs.

10.14359/3412


Document: 

SP122-20

Date: 

June 1, 1990

Author(s):

Charles J. Hookman

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

122

Abstract:

The No. 1 ore dock at Great Lakes Steel Division's Zug Island facility was originally constructed in 1909. Damage caused by freeze-thaw cycling, abrasion wear, severe impact loadings, and reinforcing steel corrosion resulted in a need for repair and rehabilitation. Multiple Dynamics Corporation conducted extensive condition surveys and testing to develop repair strategies for this structure. The remaining service life was then predicted to assist in economic planning. This case history provides an excellent example of concrete performance in an aggressive environment.

10.14359/3407


Document: 

SP122-19

Date: 

June 1, 1990

Author(s):

Randall W. Poston and Morris Schupack

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

122

Abstract:

An investigation was conducted to assess the structural integrity of a 17-year-old precast prestressed concrete conveyor bridge used to transport sodium chloride rock salt from a storage building to an outside stockpile area. The stockpile, depending on storage requirements, quite often buried most of the structure and/or subjected it to sodium chloride dust. The investigation revealed that the structure had performed remarkably well, considering the small concrete cover used to protect the reinforcing elements and the inadequate consideration of structural cracking induced by unanticipated loading from stockpiled salt. The concrete strength of the single tee members was estimated to be 7000 psi (48 MPa), with cover to the stirrups varying from virtually 0 to 1 1/2 in. (0 to 38 mm) and cover to the prestressing strands varying from 3/4 to 2 in. (19 to 51 mm). It was observed that aggressive prestressing strand corrosion causing pitting and some brittle wire failures occurred locally at flexural crack locations in single tee column members with little corrosion activity immediately adjacent to the cracks, even after 17 years of aggressive chloride exposure. This observation seems to conflict with the prevailing theory of the role of cracking on corrosion--that cracks perpendicular to steel reinforcement should result in limited early localized corrosion but, with time, chloride ions penetrate even uncracked concrete and initiate widespread corrosion.

10.14359/2852


Document: 

SP122-18

Date: 

June 1, 1990

Author(s):

S. Gebler, P. Nussbaum, W. Dziedzic, J. Glikin, A. Litvin, W. Bilenki, Jr., and J. Stefanik

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

122

Abstract:

Two concrete natural draft cooling towers exhibited honeycombing and freeze-thaw damage. This paper presents results of inspections and laboratory and field tests used to develop cooling tower rehabilitation repair strategies. Different repair materials were evaluated and tested in the laboratory. The repair strategy selected involved measures to dry out the marginally air-entrained saturated tower shell concrete to minimize future freeze-thaw damage and then replace concrete exhibiting honeycombing and condensate leakage with dry-mix shotcrete (gunite). The interior concrete shell was then coated with an impermeable membrane. Six materials for coating the interior shell concrete and two types of shotcrete processes were evaluated.

10.14359/2540


Document: 

SP122-17

Date: 

June 1, 1990

Author(s):

Charles F. Kulpa and Cassandra J. Baker

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

122

Abstract:

When anaerobic conditions occur in a sewer pipe in the presence of sulfate, sulfur-reducing bacteria will produce hydrogen sulfide. As hydrogen sulfide is released, various populations of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (thiobacilli), will proliferate. The proliferation of these organisms results in a decrease in pH due to the production of sulfuric acid. Different thiobacilli will be present depending on the pH of the environment. Samples from regions of deteriorated and nondeteriorated concrete pipe were taken to determine the presence of microorganisms that could cause microbially induced concrete deterioration. The results presented show that the degree of concrete deterioration can be correlated with the number and type of thiobacilli present. Extensive deterioration was observed at the crown of reinforced and asbestos concrete pipe, where the most acidophilic group of thiobacilli were present in elevated numbers. Areas of lesser deterioration were somewhat acidic, with a combination of different sulfur-oxidizing thiobacilli present. Areas that did not appear to be deteriorated were populated with the least acidophilic group of sulfur-oxidizing thiobacilli. The presence of microbially induced deterioration of concrete and the stage of deterioration can be determined by utilizing selective media to culture the various groups of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria associated with concrete decay.

10.14359/2534


Document: 

SP122-16

Date: 

June 1, 1990

Author(s):

John A. Bickley

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

122

Abstract:

Paper reports the results of part of a program to determine the extent and severity of carbonation in buildings in Canada. About 350 core samples drilled from 28 buildings in Toronto were tested by two procedures to determine the depth of carbonation. Tests were made on cast-in-place balconies and vertical components and on precast cladding. A proportion of the total sample was found to be susceptible to carbonation damage within a reasonable service life.

10.14359/2512


Document: 

SP122-15

Date: 

June 1, 1990

Author(s):

N. S. Berke and K. M Sundberg

Publication:

Special Publication

Volume:

122

Abstract:

Chloride-induced corrosion is a problem common to steel reinforced concrete exposed to chloride ions. A severe case is the use of reinforced concrete in seawater. The high-chloride concentration in salt water, the geometry of concrete piles, and the moisture differential between concrete above and below the water line are all factors that complicate the problem. The corrosion resistance of steel reinforced concrete is a function of the concrete cover of the steel, concrete permeability, surface chloride concentration, and ambient temperature. In this paper, the authors present diffusion curves for chloride ingress into concrete piles. The diffusion coefficients are based on extensive laboratory and field studies. They also discuss the usefulness of this model, based on Fick's law of diffusion. By estimating the chloride ion concentration at the steel reinforcement after a given amount of time, the lifetime of the structure can be predicted. In addition to concrete quality, concrete admixtures affect the corrosion of steel in concrete. Two concrete admixtures are discussed--calcium nitrite and microsilica. As demonstrated in other publications, both of these additives delay the onset of corrosion. It has also been shown that calcium nitrite affects the rate of corrosion upon initiation. The appropriate dosage of each admixture can be determined using the chloride diffusion curves. Examples are described in the paper.

10.14359/2522


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