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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Showing 1-5 of 25 Abstracts search results
June 1, 1990
Charles F. Kulpa and Cassandra J. Baker
When anaerobic conditions occur in a sewer pipe in the presence of sulfate, sulfur-reducing bacteria will produce hydrogen sulfide. As hydrogen sulfide is released, various populations of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (thiobacilli), will proliferate. The proliferation of these organisms results in a decrease in pH due to the production of sulfuric acid. Different thiobacilli will be present depending on the pH of the environment. Samples from regions of deteriorated and nondeteriorated concrete pipe were taken to determine the presence of microorganisms that could cause microbially induced concrete deterioration. The results presented show that the degree of concrete deterioration can be correlated with the number and type of thiobacilli present. Extensive deterioration was observed at the crown of reinforced and asbestos concrete pipe, where the most acidophilic group of thiobacilli were present in elevated numbers. Areas of lesser deterioration were somewhat acidic, with a combination of different sulfur-oxidizing thiobacilli present. Areas that did not appear to be deteriorated were populated with the least acidophilic group of sulfur-oxidizing thiobacilli. The presence of microbially induced deterioration of concrete and the stage of deterioration can be determined by utilizing selective media to culture the various groups of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria associated with concrete decay.
P. K. Mehta
The commercial utilization of high-strength concrete with 60 to 120 Mpa compressive strength is a recent phenomenon; therefore, long-term field experience with regard to durability in corrosive environments is not available. In this paper, a critical review of the factors necessary to obtain high strength and high durability is presented. Typically, the concrete mixtures contain high cement content, low water content, and several admixtures, such as a superplasticizer, a pozzolan, and at times an air-entraining agent. When properly placed, consolidated, and cured, such mixtures should have low permeability and high durability to corrosive environments. However, there is some concern that microcracking in the aggregate-cement paste transition zone, possibly due to a variety of causes, may impair the impermeability and durability. The results of a recent investigation are discussed, which show that the aggregate type can play an important role in controlling the strength of the transition zone and, therefore, the degree of potential microcracking of concrete in service.
Editor: David Whiting / Co-Sponsored by: ACI Committees 201 and ACI Committee 222
"A collection of 24 papers form an international panel of experts on topics ranging from fundamental laboratory studies of concrete durability to case histories of concrete rehabilitation. The volume is arranged in three parts. Part 1: covers the more fundamental aspects and laboratory investigations. Topics include freeze-thaw resistance, durability of high strength concrete, corrosion of reinforcing steel, air voids in concrete, and effects of high range water-reducers. Part 2: covers field studies where concrete is exposed to natural conditions. Topics include carbonation of concrete, deicer scaling resistance of roller compacted concrete pavements, performance in marine environments, and microbiologically-induced deterioration. Part 3: covers case histories of the performance and rehabilitation of concrete structures in severe service environments. The types of structures include cooling tower shells, precast prestressed concrete conveyor bridge, heavy duty dock, elevated road way, and a masonry structure under corrosive exposure."
Note: The individual papers are also available as .pdf downloads.. Please click on the following link to view the papers available, or call 248.848.3800 to order.
N. M. Vanderhorst and D. J. Janssen
Some properly proportioned portland cement-concrete mixtures occasionally show distress when exposed to freezing and thawing, while some mixtures that do not contain entrained air may appear to perform adequately despite exposure to freezing and thawing. Obviously, there is a difference in the severity of freezing-and-thawing environments. The factors affecting the severity of freezing-and-thawing environments include the temperature and moisture conditions and salt exposure. These factors are examined, along with materials properties that relate to these factors. Comparisons are made between laboratory and field moisture and thermal conditions, and the damage mechanisms most appropriate for each set of conditions are discussed. Conclusions are drawn concerning the definition of a truly severe freezing-and-thawing environment in the field, and a qualitative relationship between the severity of freezing-and-thawing environments and cooling rates is proposed.
D. Whiting and W. Dziedzic
A study was made of three commercially available "second-generation" high-range water-reducing admixtures (HRWR) using cement of high and moderate C3 A content and having a cement content of 545k lb/yd3 (323 kg/m3) and a water-cement ratio (w/c) of 0.50. Second-generation HRWR were used to reduce cement and water contents by 15 to 16 percent. Hardened concrete specimens were prepared and tested for freeze-thaw resistance, resistance to deicer scaling, permeability to chloride ions, drying shrinkage, and compressive strength development. In addition, the air-void systems of concretes containing second-generation HRWR and air-entraining admixtures were analyzed by linear transverse. Similar tests were performedon flowing concretes, where cement and water contents were maintained constant and second-generation HRWR were added to increase initial slump levels to 7 to 9 in. (75 to 225 mm). Results indicate that caution must be exercised when using these admixtures to reduce cement contents in concretes subjected to deicing chemicals, as performance may be adversely affected, especially in high-slump "flowing" concretes. Additionally, drying shrinkage may be moderately increased in these concretes.
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