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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Showing 1-10 of 14 Abstracts search results
October 1, 1989
C. J. Hookham and T. L. Bailey
Long-term durability of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures in U.S. nuclear power plants was identified as a critical issue in the feasibility studies of plant life extension. Evaluation of concrete structures at several operating plants included studies of known concrete degradation modes, performance of condition surveys/testing, and service life prediction. Results indicate that service lives of 60 or more years are achievable, provided that preservation activities are conducted for these concrete structures.
M. R. Resheidat
Internal algorithms for creep and shrinkage when substituted by approximate algebraic equations lead to the adoption of a computational procedure substantially independent of linear equations adopted in the time-dependent prediction model. Presented herein are the numerical results of stresses and strains of reinforced and post-tensioned concrete bridge box-sections where creep and shrinkage are considered. Field measurements of deformations have been recorded and compared with the corresponding numerical results obtained by utilizing a computer program. Results are presented in a graphical form. It may be concluded that the computer method is a convenient tool for describing the behavior of structural concrete sections considering creep and shrinkage in connection with performance and service ability.
P. Arumugasaamy and R. N. Swamy
Presents a simple design aid for predicting long-term (up to 50 years) movements in reinforced concrete columns and bridge beams made of normal and lightweight aggregate concrete. The method is based on the principle of superposition using a creep factor chart, which takes into account varying sizes of members, age at loading, exposure conditions, and the percentage of reinforcement, and it requires only a knowledge of the concrete strength and the loading history of the member. The method is developed from the study of in situ movements in two reinforced concrete structures subjected to increment loading. The shrinkage strains in columns are predicted using a shrinkage chart, which requires only a knowledge of elastic modulus of concrete at 28 days. The predicted load-induced and basic strains show excellent agreement with measured strains in the two structures, and the method shows good agreement with literature. The paper demonstrates how the simple method of predicting long-term movements in buildings and bridges can be utilized by the structural engineer as a designer's tool.
U. Ersoy and T. Tankut
Two case studies are presented as examples illustrating the problem of shrinkage in reinforced concrete buildings in Central Turkey, where humidity is quite low and extreme temperature changes take place. The first case discussed is a structure consisting of one-bay frames with curved beams spanning 36 m. Axial tension created by shrinkage had reduced the axial thrust in the beams causing a considerable drop in the flexural capacity and leading to severe cracking. The second case presented is a grain bin where vertical cracks in the silo walls were explained mainly by the restraining effect of the rigid foundation against shrinkage deformations. Types and causes of shrinkage cracks are discussed, and the methods of analysis used are briefly explained for each case. The estimated values of shrinkage deformations in dry climates with extreme temperature changes are compared with experimental values, and some serious possible consequences are explained.
M. K. Tadros,A. Yousef, and Y. S Joo
Deals primarily with statically indeterminate beams where settlement of the supports can produce stresses. A method of estimating the effects of support settlement is presented. The method accounts for the fact that soil consolidation and the corresponding support settlement often develop over an extended period of time. The method also demonstrates that creep of concrete can reduce the ultimate settlement-induced stresses in uncracked members by as much as 60 percent of the elastic values. Furthermore, flexural cracking of concrete results in reduction of the member stiffness. This corresponds to further relief of the settlement-induced stresses. Field studies on the effects of settlement in several bridges are presented. The relationship between the amount of settlement and its structural effects is illustrated.
S. B. Quinn
Concrete bridge decks have long been a problem for the design and construction industry. They have a tendency to crack and/or spall over time. The deicing process then creates problems because of salt intrusion into cracks. These cause spalling and ultimate deterioration of the reinforcing steel and the load-carrying ability of the concrete slab. The author wrote specifications concerning methods to produce a bridge deck that should be relatively crack free and thus enhance the long-term durability of the slab. Some items specified included long-term wet-mat curing, better concrete quality control, and a reduction of the water-cement ratio by 20 percent below standard specifications. He further discusses the utilization of retarders and high-range water reducers to accomplish the objective. The author then covers other methods in the literature such as epoxy-coated reinforcing bars as part of the overall process to produce a bridge deck that is relatively maintenance free over the long term.
Describes deterioration of concrete in the chambers and the culverts of Eisenhower Lock that were observed soon after the lock was completed in 1958. Investigators from the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station postulated that the most probable cause of deterioration was pressure created by freezing water in critically saturated concrete that was not mature enough to withstand the pressure. Slow strength gain of the concrete was believed due to the use of natural cement. The investigation conducted prior to repairs performed at Eisenhower Lock in the winter of 1985-86 suggested that poor durability of the in-place concrete may have been caused to a large extent by inadequate control over concrete operations during construction works. Therefore, all precautions have been taken to assure that the newly placed concrete will perform adequately under severe service conditions. The only operation that caused concern was adding hot water at the project site to the dry concrete mix containing portland cement.
R. M. Samra and W. L. Gamble
A rational method of analysis is developed that can be used on a computer to determine the behavior of reinforced concrete columns under sustained service loads. At specific time intervals, trial-and-error procedures are used to establish strain compatibility and equilibrium conditions at each of several cross sections of a member. Curvatures are integrated to find the deflected shape, and an iterative approach is used to find the stable deflected shape if there are secondary moments. The analysis calculates the effect of creep on the stress redistribution between concrete and steel and on the deflections of members subjected to variable axial loads and variable moments. The effects of shrinkage and cracking are also included. The applicability of the analysis is partially verified by comparison with laboratory and field investigations reported by various researchers. In most cases, a good correlation is obtained between the analytical results and the measured results.
P. Arumugasaamy and R. N Swamy
Long-term behavior of in situ reinforced concrete columns in two structures during construction, occupancy, and service is reported. Extensive strain and moisture movements were made up to about 10 years of service, and long-term movements at 25 to 30 years were then estimated. The stress history experienced by the columns in the second structure was monitored through a stress meter embedded in one of the columns, and the influence of reinforcement and the time-dependent movements on the stress history is described. The gradual but significant stress redistribution with time and the resulting concrete-steel load transfer is also discussed. Results show that the time-dependent deformation in in situ columns occurred over a very long period of time and continue to occur at a very small rate. However, the majority of movements in the columns occurred during the first 5-year period after construction of the columns. It is shown that dead load appears to be the predominant load carried by the columns. The design steel stress has been exceeded in several columns within 10 years of service life; however, none of the steel is expected to yield in 50 years of service life. Based on the in situ performance of columns along with other available data, a design recommendation is made to incorporate the effects of load transfer from concrete to steel at the design stage.
M. M. Elnimeiri and M. R. Joglekar
Differential elastic, creep, shrinkage, and thermal deformations of vertical concrete elements, columns, and walls in tall building structures require special attention to insure proper behavior for both strength and serviceability of the structure and the attached nonstructural elements. The long-term serviceability problems include out-of-level floors in both concrete and composite buildings, and cracking and deformations of internal partitions and external cladding elements. A procedure is developed to predict the long-term deformations of reinforced concrete columns, walls, and composite columns. The procedure incorporates the effects of concrete properties, construction sequence, and loading history. For composite columns, the effects of load transfer from the steel erection column to the reinforced concrete column are also included. Methods to minimize differential shortening of columns and walls are discussed. The methods involve corrections during both design and construction phases. Differential shortening effects for three tall buildings, in Chicago, which were designed using the procedure, are discussed. Results from six years of field measurements of column shortening are compared with predicted values.
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