• The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.

International Concrete Abstracts Portal


Title: Chlorides in Concrete: Science-Based Exposure Classifications and Allowable Limits

Author(s): David Trejo and Gokul Dev Vasudevan

Publication: Materials Journal

Volume: 121

Issue: 1

Appears on pages(s): 5-16

Keywords: admixed chloride; allowable chloride concentration; corrosion; critical chloride concentration; exposure classification; limit state design; probability of corrosion

DOI: 10.14359/51739198

Date: 1/1/2024

Inconsistencies in standards and codes result in confusion, increased costs, and do not promote the efficient use of concrete. In addition to inconsistencies, the lack of science-based approaches and data used for defining criteria in these standards and codes can limit the reliability and trust of these requirements. A review of industry documents indicates that inconsistencies and lack of science-based approaches exist across many documents, both throughout the industry and within ACI, relating to the corrosion of steel reinforcement embedded in concrete. This paper proposes to address five key issues to promote science-based standardization of requirements necessary for reinforced concrete systems exposed to corrosive conditions. These five issues include the need for: 1) standardization of chloride testing methods and requirements; 2) standardization of chloride reporting units; 3) standardization of terminology for specifying chlorides in cementitious systems; 4) standardization of exposure classifications for corrosive conditions; and 5) standardization of allowable chloride limits. This paper presents current inconsistencies in guide documents and codes for each of the items listed previously and then proposes an approach to standardize each using either available data and/ or a scientifically based approach. Recommendations for testing, reporting, definition of exposure classifications, and allowable chloride limits are then proposed. It is hoped that the systematic approach used herein will lead to standardization and consistency, less confusion, and will promote the efficient use of durable and economical concrete.