Title: Improving Performance and Reducing The CO2 Footprint of Concrete using Multiple Approaches
Author(s): R.Douglas Hooton
Publication: Symposium Paper
Appears on pages(s): 696-710
Approximately 90% of the carbon footprint from concrete production is from portland cement (assuming portland cement is used as the sole cementitious binder). Therefore to reduce its carbon footprint, the amount of Portland cement clinker needs to be reduced. There are different ways of doing this, including optimization of combined aggregate gradations, use of water reducing admixtures, use of portland-limestone cements (PLC), and use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). All of these measures can be taken simultaneously, but there is also concern that extreme measures (such as high SCM replacement levels) will reduce the robustness of concrete to abuse during construction, resulting in lower durability. Durability is important to obtain long service lives of concrete structures, and has a large impact on their carbon footprint.
This paper includes discussion of how each these measures if used prudently, can achieve significant reductions in carbon footprint while simultaneously improving durability in aggressive exposure conditions.