Title: Headed Bars in Beam-Column Joints Subjected to Reversed Cyclic Loading
Author(s): Krishna P. Ghimire, David Darwin, and Andrés Lepage
Publication: Structural Journal
Appears on pages(s): 27-33
Keywords: anchorage; beam-column joints; bond and development; development length; headed bars; high-strength concrete; high-strength reinforcement; reversed cyclic loading
Descriptive equations developed for the anchorage strength of headed bars in beam-column joints under monotonic load are evaluated for beam-column joints subjected to reversed cyclic loading. Test results from 23 studies that include 84 exterior and seven roof-level interior beam-column joints are used in the evaluation. Concrete compressive strengths and reinforcement yield strengths ranged from 3480 to 21,500 psi (24 to 148 MPa) and 53,700 to 150,000 psi (370 to 1030 MPa), respectively. Headed bar sizes ranged from slightly smaller than a No. 4 (No. 13) to No. 11 (No. 36) with net-bearing areas ranging from 1.7 to 8.6 times the bar area. The embedment lengths and center-to-center spacing between the headed bars ranged from eight to 18 bar diameters and from two
to eight bar diameters, respectively. Analysis of the test data shows that descriptive equations based on headed bars under monotonic loading are also applicable to headed bars in beam-column joints subjected to reversed cyclic loading. These comparisons were used to justify the single approach used within the ACI Building Code for calculating the development length of headed bars.