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Title: Mass Shotcrete Wall Construction and Thermal Control Plan

Author(s): Lihe Zhang, Dudley R. Morgan, Iain Kirk, Anastasia Rolland, and Robert Karchewski

Publication: Materials Journal

Volume: 118

Issue: 3

Appears on pages(s): 71-82

Keywords: compaction; consolidation; encapsulation; mass concrete; mass shotcrete; nozzleman; shotcrete; temperature differential; thermal control plan

DOI: 10.14359/51730423

Date: 5/1/2021

Wet-mix shotcrete has been used more and more for structural applications in the past few decades. Recently, wet-mix shotcrete was successfully used to construct a mass structural wall with congested reinforcement and minimum dimensions of 1.0 m in a sewage treatment plant. A low-heat shotcrete mixture that included up to 40% slag was proposed for shotcrete application. A preconstruction mockup was shot to established proper work procedures for shotcrete application and qualify the shotcrete mixture and shotcrete nozzlemen. Extraction of cores and cut windows from the mockup confirmed proper consolidation around the congested reinforcement. A thermal control plan was developed, which included laboratory and field testing requirements, thermal analysis modeling with a three-dimensional (3-D) finite element program, and thermal control requirements, including installation of cooling pipes and thermal blankets. Shotcrete proved to be an efficient means for mass concrete structural construction. Thermal control for mass shotcrete construction was studied, and the proposed thermal control plan was proved to function properly. The general guidance for mass shotcrete construction is provided.