Title: SP-339-06: Analysis and Design of Reinforced Cast-in-Place Concrete Diaphragms
Author(s): Drew A. Kirkpatrick, Leonard M. Joseph, J. Ola Johansson, and C. Kerem Gulec
Publication: Symposium Paper
Appears on pages(s): 84-104
Keywords: performance based seismic design (PBSD), non-linear response history analysis (NLRHA), diaphragms, concrete, tall buildings, PERFORM-3D
The distribution of forces through floor diaphragms is critical to the overall behavior and performance of buildings during both wind and seismic events. Simplified methods commonly employed by design engineers establish approximate magnitudes and distributions of inertial and transfer forces within floor diaphragms. Such methods can be appropriate for regular low-rise buildings without significant transfer forces. However, for design of complex structures with large stiffness discontinuities in vertical or horizontal directions, a more detailed investigation and modeling of diaphragm behavior is usually required. Common situations in high-rise projects include a tower stack meeting a podium base with supplemental shear walls and a tower stack meeting a grade-level slab enclosed by basement walls. Large diaphragm transfer forces typically occur at these levels of abrupt stiffness changes. Using examples from recent projects and parametric studies following performance-based seismic design (PBSD) principles, this paper describes the use of strut-and-tie models in commercially available software (PERFORM-3D) to provide a better understanding of complex diaphragm behavior. Results can aid the designer in making decisions regarding floor thickness and reinforcing layout, including at chords and collectors. While the need for enhanced modeling techniques and understanding of diaphragm behavior has been highlighted by the increased use of PBSD, the findings presented in this paper may be applicable to projects based on traditional (code-based) approaches as well.