Title: Foamed Cement Generation Methods: Insights from Macro-Porosity and Void Distribution
Author(s): L. E. Dalton, D. Crandall, K. Shanley, M. Gill, E. Rosenbaum, J. Moore, G. Ahmadi, B. Kutchko, and J. Chipkin
Publication: Materials Journal
Appears on pages(s): 89-103
Keywords: computed tomography scanning; foamed cement; wellbore cement; wellbore integrity
The American Petroleum Institute (API) Recommended Practice
10B-4 is the industry standard for measuring foamed cement stability; however, it does not incorporate the effects of elevated pressure or placement. Using high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning, this study examines how cement slurry flow through pipes impacts void distribution in cured foamed cement. Analysis of void size and distribution allows a comparison of lab and field generation; simulated velocity profiles indicate cement flow through constrictions likely influences structural variations. Notably, field-generated samples show more nitrogen bubbles at the injection port. Moreover, a review of the average bubble diameter concludes lab samples have average bubble sizes that increase with their quality, while field samples have similar average bubble diameters suggesting variation among generation methods.