• The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.

International Concrete Abstracts Portal


Title: Controlled Low-Strength Materials Composed Solely of By-Products

Author(s): Ceki Halmen and Harsh Shah

Publication: Materials Journal

Volume: 112

Issue: 2

Appears on pages(s): 239-246

Keywords: compressive strength; controlled low-strength material (CLSM); flow; freezing-and-thawing resistance; gypsum; quarry fines; synthetic setting time

DOI: 10.14359/51686987

Date: 3/1/2015

A series of low-cost controlled low-strength materials (CLSMs)mixtures were produced without cement, using only by-products, including Class C fly ash, large quantities of limestone quarry fines, and synthetic gypsum. Flow, setting time, compressive strength, elastic modulus, and freezing-and-thawing resistance of mixtures were evaluated. Results indicated that CLSM mixtures solely comprised of by-products can be designed to provide a wide range of flow, setting time, and strength values. Obtained flow values varied between 200 and 600 mm (8 and 24 in.), setting time varied between a couple of hours and a day, and strength values varied between 237.4 and 9932 kPa (34.4 and 1440.5 psi). The maximum measured mass loss after 12 freezing-and-thawing cycles was 8%. Results showed that the addition of synthetic gypsum significantly improved strength and freezing-and-thawing resistance of mixtures.