Title: Wind-Tunnel Modeling for Structural Design
Author(s): Jack E. Cermack
Publication: Structural Journal
Appears on pages(s): 592-601
Keywords: bridges (structures); chimneys; models; structural analysis; structural design; towers; wind (meteorology); wind pressure; wind tunnels; Design
Civil engineers, architects, and mechanical engineers rely upon data derived from wind-tunnel tests for design of buildings, bridges, towers, and chimneys as extensively as do aeronautical engineers for design of aircraft. Development of special boundary-layer wind tunnels that successfully simulate natural wind in the atmospheric boundary layer has made this possible. Long test-section wind tunnels used for this purpose are of the closed-circuit and open-circuit types. Four common types of small-scale models are used for tests to yield data for design and analysis: rigid (static) pressure, rigid low-frequency balance, rigid high-frequency balance, and aeroelastic. Data from these tests must be used with wind data obtained from a meteorological station near the construction site to achieve economical designs having specified risk of damage or unacceptable performance.