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Title: Studies of the Physical Properties of Hardened Portland Cement Paste

Author(s): T. C. Powers and T. L. Brownyard

Publication: Journal Proceedings

Volume: 43

Issue: 9

Appears on pages(s): 249-336

Keywords: none

DOI: 10.14359/15301

Date: 11/1/1946

In nine parts, Part 1. A Review of Methods That Have Been Used for Studying the Physical Properties of Hardened Portland Cement Paste Part 2. Studies of Water Fixation Appendix to Part 2 Part 3. Theoretical interpretation of Adsorption Data Part 4. Thermodynamics of adsorption Appendix to Parts 3 and 4 Part 5. Studies of the Hardened Paste by Means of Specific-Volume Measurements Part 6. Relation of Physical Characteristics of the Paste to Compressive Strength Part 7. Permeability and Absorptivity Part 8. The Freezing of Water in Hardened Portland Cement Paste Part 9. General Summary of Findings on the Properties of Hardened Portland Cement Paste This paper deals mainly with data on water fixation in hardened portland cement paste, the properties of evaporable water, the density of the solid substance and the porosity of the paste as a whole. The studies of the evaporable water include water-vapor-adsorp- tion characteristics and the thermodynamics of ad- sorption. The discussions include the following topics: I. Theoretical interpretation of adsorption data 2. The specific surface of hardened portland ce- ment paste. 3. Minimum porosity of hardened paste 4. Relative amounts of gel-water and capillary 5. The thermodynamics of adsorption 6. The energy of binding of water in hardened paste 7. ‘Swelling pressure 8. Mechanism of shrinking and swelling 9. Capillary-flow and moisture diffusion IO. Estimation of absolute volume of solid phase in hardened paste I I. Soecific volumes of evaporable and nonevap- ora ble water 12. Computation of volume of solid phase in hard- ened ’ paste 13. Limit of hydration of portland cement 14. Relation of physical characteristics of paste to compressive strength 15. Permeability and absorptivity 16. Freezing of water in hardened portland cement paste