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Title: Fracture Behavior of Three-Dimensional-Printable Cementitious Mortars in Very Early Ages and Hardened States

Author(s): K. Sriram Kompella, Andrea Marcucci, Francesco Lo Monte, Marinella Levi, and Liberato Ferrara

Publication: Materials Journal

Volume: 121

Issue: 2

Appears on pages(s): 49-58

Keywords: flexural strength and work of fracture; influence of layers; shear behavior; testing methods; three dimensional (3-D)-printable cementitious composites; very-early-age tensile constitutive behavior

DOI: 10.14359/51740302

Date: 4/1/2024

The early-age material parameters of three-dimensional (3-D)-printable concrete defined under the umbrella of printability, namely, pumpability, extrudability, buildability, and the “printability window/open time,” are subjective measures. The need to correlate and successively substitute these subjective measures with objective and accepted material properties, such as tensile strength, shear strength, and compressive strength, is paramount. This study validates new testing methodologies to quantify the tensile and shear strengths of printable fiber-reinforced concretes still in their fresh state. A tailored mixture with high sulfoaluminate cement and nonstructural basalt fibers has been assumed as a reference. The relation between the previously mentioned parameters and rheological parameters, such as yield strength obtained through International Center for Aggregates Research (ICAR) rheometer tests, is also explored. Furthermore, in an attempt to pave the way and contribute toward a better understanding of the mechanical properties of 3-D-printed concrete, to be further transferred into design procedures, a comparative study analyzing the work of fracture per unit crack width in three-point bending has been performed on printed and companion nominally identical monolithically cast specimens, investigating the effects of printing directions, position in the printed circuit, and specimen slenderness (length to depth) ratio.