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Title: Shoreline Resilience through Advanced Manufacturing

Author(s): Amin K. Akhnoukh and Mathew Campbell

Publication: Materials Journal

Volume: 121

Issue: 2

Appears on pages(s): 41-48

Keywords: advanced manufacturing; reactive-diffusion morphology; resiliency; shoreline protection; sustainable

DOI: 10.14359/51740264

Date: 4/1/2024

The U.S. National Ocean Service estimates 95,741 miles (154,080 km) of shoreline in the United States, where 163 miles per year are hardened by bulkheads and riprap. These shoreline protection techniques are costly and require frequent maintenance. Different agencies are examining “nature-based” solutions that combine vegetation with traditional concrete. Digital construction, advanced manufacturing, and innovative cementitious composites have also been proposed as potential means to lower material use, cost, and environmental impact. This paper presents a novel advanced manufacturing technique using a reactive-diffusion morphological process, called “dry-forming,” to three-dimensionally (3-D) printed concrete structures of various shapes, sizes, and complexities with standard concrete mixtures. This technology has reduced 60% of material use, enhanced local habitats, and increased the resiliency of the shoreline to sea level rise. The widespread use of this technology would increase the resiliency of coastal communities, protect aquatic life, and protect waterfront public and private real estate investments.