Title: Conventional and High-Strength Headed Bars—Part 2: Data Analysis
Author(s): Krishna P. Ghimire, Yun Shao, David Darwin, and Matthew O’Reilly
Publication: Structural Journal
Appears on pages(s): 265-272
Keywords: anchorage; beam-column joints; bond and development; headed bars; high-strength concrete, high-strength steel; reinforcement
Equations to characterize the anchorage strength of headed bars were developed, incorporating key factors affecting anchorage strength: concrete compressive strength; embedment length; bar diameter; spacing between the bars; and confining reinforcement parallel to the headed bars. Results from tests of 138 exterior beam-column joints, 64 without and 74 with confining reinforcement within the joint region, were used to develop the equations. Concrete compressive strengths ranged from 4050 to 16,030 psi (27.9 to 110.6 MPa) and bar stresses at failure ranged from 33,100 to 153,160 psi (228 to 1056 MPa). The bearing area of the headed bars ranged from 3.8 to 9.5 times the area of the bar. Some headed bars contained obstructions adjacent to the head that exceeded the dimensions permitted for HA heads in ACI 318-14 and ASTM A970-13a but are now permitted by ASTM A970-18. The test results show that headed bar anchorage strength is proportional to the concrete compressive strength raised to the power 0.24. The contribution of confining reinforcement is proportional to the area of confining reinforcement parallel to the headed bar within eight to 10 bar diameters of the headed bar. Headed bars with obstructions larger than those permitted in ACI 318-14 that meet the provisions in ASTM A970-18 exhibit anchorage strengths that are similar to those that meet the provisions in ACI 318-14.