Title: Conventional and High-Strength Headed Bars—Part 1: Anchorage Tests
Author(s): Krishna P. Ghimire, Yun Shao, David Darwin, and Matthew O’Reilly
Publication: Structural Journal
Appears on pages(s): 255-264
Keywords: anchorage; beam-column joints; bond and development; development length; headed bars; high-strength concrete; high-strength steel; reinforcement
Results of an experimental program on the anchorage strength of headed reinforcing bars are presented. Two hundred and two exterior beam-column joint specimens with concrete compressive strengths ranging from 3960 to 16,030 psi (27.3 to 110.6 MPa) were tested under monotonic loading. Key parameters included concrete compressive strength, embedment length, bar size, head size, spacing between headed bars, and confining reinforcement within the joint region. Bar stresses at failure ranged from 26,100 to 153,200 psi (180 to 1057 MPa). Specimens exhibited concrete breakout, side-face blowout, or a combination of the two failure modes, with concrete breakout being the dominant failure mode. A comparison of bar stress at anchorage failure with the stress calculated based on ACI 318-14 shows that ACI 318-14 provides a very conservative estimate of anchorage strength for No. 5 (No. 16) bars and low concrete compressive strengths. The estimate becomes progressively less conservative with increasing bar size and concrete compressive strength.