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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Browse from hundreds of recorded presentations from ACI Conventions and other concrete industry events.
Three-Point Bending Tests of Notched Beam: A Suitable Test to Investigate Size Effect of Plain Concrete
by Christian Carloni, Case Western Reserve University
Applications of Structural Plain Concrete (ACI Spring 2022, Orlando, FL) This work presents the results of three-point bending (TPB) tests on the largest set of plain concrete notched beams ever tested. Five different sizes (depths), nominally 3 in., 6 in., 10 in., 20 in., and 40 in., were tested to evaluate size effect experimentally. The largest size was tested horizontally while floating on Plexiglas balls in order to remove the effect of the self-weight. In addition, for the second to largest size some specimens were tested horizontally and the others vertically in order to confirm that the different test set-up did not affect the results. Particular care was paid to obtain a set of specimens that were carefully cast from the same batch of concrete, cured under the same conditions, and tested at virtually the same age under the same environmental conditions. In quasibrittle materials like concrete, the fracture front is blunted by a zone of microcracking (that eventually coalesce into an actual crack) where nonlinear softening behavior occurs. This region is often called fracture process zone (FPZ). In a three-point bending (TPB) test of notched beams, the FPZ starts to develop before the peak load is attained. However, the FPZ continues to extend further after the peak is reached during the descending portion of the response. When the FPZ is fully developed, it may occupy a large portion or even the whole cross-section of the specimen. In small-size TPB specimens, the FPZ may not fully develop. In fact, as the FPZ continues to extend, it is contrasted by the presence of a compression zone on top due to the presence of bending moment in TPB tests. The size of the fully established FPZ is linked to the characteristics of the quasibrittle material investigated and can be used to predict to what extent notched beams and more in general structural elements (made of a given quasibrittle material) exhibit size effect that deviates from the one predicted by linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). The load responses, the peak load Pmax..
October 3 - 9
Guidelines for 40-Year Inspection Requirements
by Brian Duchene, Terracon Consultants, Inc.
Hot Topic Session (ACI Spring 2022, Orlando, FL) Conducting 40-year inspections requirements can be very challenging on a number of levels. Building construction can vary which can change the scope of work. Owner occupied residential structures present special Client challenges. These challenges raise several important questions. What should the standard of care be for a 40-year inspection, visual only? Should the industry have published minimum standards and rating systems, like we have for bridges, based on the structure type, i.e. steel frame, reinforced concrete, masonry? Should there be legislative liability relief for engineers performing 40 year inspections on Owner Occupied buildings to attract more qualified engineers to perform these inspections. Should there be prescriptive regulatory responsibilities and timeframes for Owners and Homeowner’s Associations to act on the engineer’s findings and recommendations based on the criticality of the findings?
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