Reinforced Concrete Failures During Earthquakes
Roger Diaz De Cossio and Emilio Rosenblueth
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Photographic evidence is presented and discussed of different types of failures occurring to reinforced concrete members during earthquakes. For the most part, examples are shown from three recent Mexican earthquakes: the 1956 Oaxaca, the 1957 Mexico City, and the 1959 Coatzacoalcos-Jaltipan. Some examples are also shown from the 1923 Kanto and 1948 Fukui Japanese earth-quakes, and from the recent 1960 Chilean earthquakes. T h e major types of failures observed were shear and diagonal tension, beam or slab-column connection failures, excessive bending, and tension. Most of the damage observed was due to poor construction practices and over-simplifications in the design. However, a study of the photographic evidence makes designers and construction men aware of the major types of damage to guard against. Also, types of failure observed again and again, in different structures and in different regions, point out weaknessesin local building codes.