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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: laboratory and Field Examinations of Ettringite Formation in Pavement Concrete
Author(s): J. Stark and K. Bollmann
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 183-198
Keywords: air voids; concrete pavements; durability; ettringite; expansion;
Abstract:The formation of ettringite in hardened concrete is not only a problem of heat treatment. Ettringite also occurs in no heat-treated concrete, which is exposed only to normal climatic conditions. In some cases the mechanism of damage in concrete pavements correlates with this ettringite formation in the hardened concrete. Structural changes by ettringite formation were caused above all by varying moisture conditions and, as a result, by transportation of moisture and substances within the concrete structure, which also lowers the pH value of the pore solution. The primary ettringite from the paste is microcrystallin at normal pH of 13.5 to 14 in the pore liquid. Thus ettringite may dissolve in the pore liquid and recrystalize at a lower pH in larger spaces, where the capillary transportation is interrupted. This recrystallized ettringite in the air voids was stable up to 60°C. But the mechanism of this ettringite formation is supported and accelerated by higher temperatures (e.g. 60°C) because of the intensive drying. Microstuctural defects like microcracks may be created by alternating temperatures and later on filled and may be widened by ettringite crystals. In concrete pavements no indications were found for recrystallized ettringite itself to be the primary cause of crack formation. The expansion of concrete is reduced by introducing artificial air voids, because there is more available space for accumulation of ettringite. But the combined action of freezing and thawing and de-icing salt after filling the artificially entrained air voids with ettringite crystals may causedamages.
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