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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Designing Alternative Binders Utilizing Synergistic Reactions
Author(s): Harald Justnes and Tone Anita Østnor
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 191-204
Keywords: Alternative binders; Accelerators; Calcined clay; calcium carbonate; SCM; Synergy
Abstract:Alternative binders are defined as binders without portland cement. Two synergy principles
have been described for making improved binders based on slaked lime and pozzolanic
SCMs. One showing how neutral salts may accelerate by forming strong alkaline solutions
in situ and another showing how calcium carbonate can play a role when alumina
containing SCMs are used by leading to an even higher conversion of liquid water into
solid hydrates, which subsequently leads to lower porosity and higher strength. Examples
are given when the SCMs are calcined kaoline clay contaminated with feldspar and
calcined smectite rich marl, respectively. Mortar strengths exceeding 25 MPa (3626 psi)
when cured at ambient temperature for 28 days were achieved. Predicted phases in the
microstructure, such as calcium monocarboaluminate hydrate, were confirmed by X-ray
diffraction. Other details of the microstructure were studied by capillary suction of water,
thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy.
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