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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Pullout Strength of L-Bolt Anchors - Revisiting Design Equations
Author(s): Donald F. Meinheit, Andrew E. N. Osborn, and Mark R. Krueger
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 1-30
Keywords: anchors (fasteners), J- and L-bolts, hooked anchors, tension loading (strength), pullout failure, failure modes.
Abstract:Hooked-shaped anchor bolts are a time-honored, commonly used anchor to attach steel column base plates, light poles, wood sill plates, and other structural attachments to concrete foundations. They are typically known as J- or L-bolts and have lost some popularity with the availability of post-installed anchors. Generally, the anchor is a bent bar, smooth or deformed with threads on one end and a hook on the other end. J- or L-bolts are inexpensive and easily manufactured out of straight or coiled bars. When used to attach and anchor steel columns there is often little need to consider uplift tension loading on the anchors. The usual loading is a shear load where strength of the anchor depends on how far the anchors are from the free edge of the concrete. However, for sign posts, hooked anchor bolts are required to carry tension loading due to overturning bending moments from lateral wind loading. This paper reviews the behavior of hooked anchors bolts and proposes design expressions for tension loading.
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