313-97/313R-97: Standard Practice for Design and Construction of Concrete Silos and Stacking Tubes for Storing Granular Materials and Commentary
ACI Committee 313
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Note: A newer version of this document exists. This document was replaced by 313-16.
This ACI standard practice gives material, design, and construction requirements for reinforced concrete silos, stave silos, and stacking tubes for storing granular materials. It includes design and construction recommendations for cast-in-place or precast, conventionally reinforced or post-tensioned silos. Silos and stacking tubes are special structures, posing special problems not encountered in normal building design. While this recommended practice refers to "Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete" (ACI 318) for many requirements, it puts forth special requirements and ways of considering the unique cases of static and dynamic loading from funnel flow , mass flow, concentric flow and asymmetric flow in silos and the special loading on stacking tubes. The standard includes requirements for seismic design and hopper bottom design. Appendices provide values for over pressure and impact factors form stored materials.