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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Shotcrete in the United States--A Brief History
Author(s): I. Leon Glassgold
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 289-306
Keywords: concrete construction; fibers; history; shotcrete; tests; General
Abstract:Gunite (dry-mix shotcrete) was introduced to the construction industry in the early days of concrete technology (1911) when many new ideas and concepts were just developing. The literature indicates that what we know as wet-mix shotcrete had its start about the same time but did not receive positive acceptance until 1950. The evolution of the shotcrete process to its present status in the construction industry is tracked by definitions of the process from Gunite in 1912 to the American Railway Engineers Association (AREA) definitions of Shotcrete in early the 1930s. By 1951, the adopted the term shotcrete, making it the official generic name of the process. The definitions by ACI from that time on reflect the introduction of new ideas and equipment into the market place. The author questions whether some low velocity shotcretes are truly shotcrete or just an extension of the concrete pumping process. A brief description and evaluation, from the past to present, of shotcrete materials, applications, and testing is presented. The future of the process is discussed and two major problems posed: the improvement of applicator workmanship and the development of a rational design for most shotcrete applications.
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