440.3R-04: Guide Test Methods for Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) for Reinforcing or Strengthening Concrete Structures
Appears on pages(s):
anchorage; bond; concrete; coupler; creep; fatigue; fiberreinforced polymers (FRP); modulus of elasticity; reinforced concrete; shear; splice; stirrup; strength; tendon.
Note: A newer version of this document exists. This document was replaced by 440.3R-12.
Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) materials have emerged as a practical material for producing reinforcing bars and laminates for concrete structures. FRP reinforcing bars and laminates offer advantages over steel reinforcement in that FRP is noncorrosive and nonconductive. FRP reinforcing bars, grids, and tendons are being used for nonprestressed and prestressed concrete structures. FRP laminates are being used as external reinforcement for strengthening of existing concrete and masonry structures. Due to differences in the physical and mechanical behavior of FRP materials compared to steel, unique test methods for FRP bars and laminates are required. This document provides model test methods for the short-term and longterm mechanical, thermo- mechanical, and durability testing of FRP bars and laminates. It is anticipated that these model test methods may be considered, modified, and adopted, either in whole or in part, by a U.S. national standards-writing agency such as ASTM International or AASHTO. The publication of these test methods by ACI Committee 440 is an effort to aid in this adoption. The recommended test methods are based on the knowledge gained from research results and literature worldwide. Many of the proposed test methods for reinforcing rods are based on those found in "Recommendation for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures using Continuous Fiber Reinforcing Materials" published in 1997 by the Japan Society for Civil Engineers (JSCE). The JSCE test methods have been modified extensively to add details and to adapt the test methods to U.S. practice.