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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Effects of Intergrinding Fly Ash on the Sulfate Resistance of Fly Ash Concrete
Author(s): Reed B. Freeman and Ramon Carrasquillo
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 281-298
Keywords: blended cements; chemical attack; durability; expansion; fly ash; sulfate attack; sulfate resistance; Materials Research
Abstract:The resistance of fly ash concrete to sulfate attack is dependent on both its chemical and physical characteristics. The chemistry and mineralogy of both fly ash and cement influence the sulfate resistance of hydration products, while the permeability of concrete influences the rate of ingress of sulfate ions. Researchers are studying the interdependence of the chemical and physical characteristics of fly ash concrete, as they affect sulfate resistance. Both ASTM Type I and II cements have been partially replaced by both ASTM Class F and C fly ashes. Cement replacement levels of 25 and 35 volume percent have been studied. Fly ashes have been added as mineral admixtures at the concrete mixing stage and interground with the cement constituents, as in blended cement production. Concrete specimens have been monitored for linear expansions and mass changes while immersed in 10-percent sodium sulfate solution. This paper reports on the sulfate resistance of fly ash/Type II cement concrete mixtures after 450 days of sulfate exposure. Data from 57 concrete mixtures are included, 28 of which utilized fly ash/ cement intergrinding procedures.
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