Warping of Reinforced Concrete Due to Shrinkage
Alfred L. Miller
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Objectionable deflections and deformations of structural elements, espocially relatively thin slabs and shallow beams of buildings, usually are ascribed to faulty workmanship or materials, creep, and plastic flow when in fact they are evidence of warping. Warping due to temperature and moisture differentials is generally recognized but the effect of shrinkage has been relegated to the realm of uncertainty by attributing it to creep or plastic flow. Experimental investigation reveals that warping of reinforced concrete mem-bers due to shrinkage during the period of seasoning is an inherent characteristic of reinforced concrete that can be anticipated and controlled. A realistic theory is developed by which the amount of warping can be predicted and provision made for its reduction or elimination.