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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Undersea Concrete Spherical Structures
Author(s): Harvey H. Haynes and Lawerence F. Kahn
Publication: Journal Proceedings
Appears on pages(s): 337-340
Keywords: biaxial loads: buoyancy: concretes: cracking (fracturing): deep submergence; hydrostatic pressure: long time study: marine atmospheres: permeability: seawater:shells (structural forms): strength: stresses: underwater
Abstract:An experimental test program was conducted on plain concrete spherical shells of size 16 and 66 in. (40.6 and 167.6 cm) outside diameter (OD) subjected to short- and long-term hydrostatic loading. Two stages of failure were observed for the spheres; crack development in the plane of the wall thickness followed by implosion. A direct relationship was found between implosion pressure, concrete strength, and the ratio of wall thickness to outside diameter. Results from long-term loading tests showed that spheres under sustained pressure implode with time in a similar manner to that known for uniaxially loaded prisms and that the permeability rate of seawater through concrete decreases with time. Test findings support the utilization of buoyant spheres to a maximum operational depth of 3000 ft (approx. 900 m); deeper depths are feasible for negatively buoyant spherical structures.
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