SP-004: (8th) Formwork for Concrete Student

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SP-004: (8th) Formwork for Concrete Student

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**ACI SP-4 8th Edition is now available. You must be an active ACI student member to be eligible to purchase one copy of this publication at the special student member price.

Description

Eighth Edition:

The 8th Edition, authored by David W. Johnston, North Carolina State University, is a major revision of the document to bring it up-to-date with “Guide to Formwork for Concrete (ACI 347R-14).” Revisions include referencing current standards and practices, removing outdated or irrelevant material, adding content on new developments in formwork technology and practice, and updating the look and layout of the document.

This edition considers the updated lateral pressure and other provisions now provided by ACI 347R-14. Expanded coverage is provided in SP-4 for wind loads on formwork specialized from ASCE/SEI 7-10 as modified by ASCE/SEI 37-14. The design of formwork has been divided into two chapters, one focusing on bending, shear, and deflection of wall, slab, and column formwork members, and a second focusing on shoring and bracing members. Bridge formwork considerations have been moved into a separate chapter. A new chapter summarizing the recommendations of ACI 347.3R-13, “Guide to Formed Concrete Surfaces,” has been added.

Benefits of the 8th Edition include:

-An ACI best-selling document

- Allowable strength design and load and resistance factor design examples

- Updated to current standards

- Chapter problems for classroom study

- 500 modern color photographs

- 150 color illustrations

- Includes ACI 347R-14

Keywords:architectural concrete; bridge construction; building construction, concrete construction; construction; construction loads; construction materials; falsework; forms; formwork; formed surfaces, mass concrete; precast concrete; prestressed concrete; quality control; reinforced concrete; reshoring; shoring; slipform construction; tunnels

Document Details

Author: David W. Johnston

Publication Year: 2014

Pages: 512

ISBN: 9780870319129

Categories: Formwork

Formats: Printed Document or Protected PDF/Web View

Table of Contents

1: INTRODUCTION

2: GENERAL OBJECTIVES IN FORMWORK BUILDING

2.1 Standards, Specifications, and Guides Related to Formwork

2.1.1 Regulations for Safety

2.1.2 Project Specifications for Quality

2.1.3 Guides and Specifications for Formwork Design and Construction

2.2 How Formwork Affects Concrete Quality

2.3 Planning for Safety

2.3.1 Supervision and Inspection

2.3.2 Platforms and Access for Workers

2.3.3 Control of Concreting Practices

2.3.4 Improving Soil Bearing and Bracing

2.3.5 Shoring and Reshoring

2.4 Causes of Failures

2.4.1 Improper Stripping and Shore Removal

2.4.2 Inadequate Bracing

2.4.3 Inadequate Concrete Strength Development

2.4.4 Vibration and Impact

2.4.5 Unstable Soil under Mudsills, Shoring Not Plumb

2.4.6 Inadequate Control of Concrete Placement

2.4.7 When Formwork Is Not at Fault

2.4.8 Lack of Attention to Formwork Details

2.5 Relationship of Architect, Engineer, and Contractor

2.5.1 Defining the Concrete Structure

2.5.2 Maintaining and Coordinating Tolerances

2.5.3 Preparing a Formwork Specification

2.5.4 Design, Inspection, and Approval of Formwork

2.5.5 Complex Structures

2.5.6 Stay-in-Place Forms

2.5.7 Composite Construction

2.5.8 Stripping and Decentering

2.5.9 Materials and Accessories Related to Formed Surface of Exposed Concrete

2.6 Achieving Economy of Formwork

2.6.1 Measurement and Payment for Formwork

2.6.2 How the Engineer/Architect Can Reduce Form Costs

3: OVERALL PLANNING

3.1 Development of a Basic System

3.1.1 Compare Alternate Methods

3.1.2 Examine Form Plan in Relation to Total Job

3.2 Key Areas of Cost Reduction

3.3 Planning for Maximum Reuse

3.3.1 Developing a Practical Reuse Plan

3.3.2 Comparing Reuse Schemes

3.4 Economical Form Construction

3.4.1 Job-Built Forms

3.4.2 Purchased or Rented Forms

3.5 Setting, Stripping, and Cycling Costs

3.6 Other Costs Affected by the Formwork Plan

3.6.1 Crew Efficiency

3.6.2 Cranes and Hoists

3.7 Formwork Planning Process

3.8 BIM for Planning Formwork Operations

3.8.1 How BIM is Used by a Formwork Contractor

3.8.2 Advantages of BIM

4: MATERIALS, ACCESSORIES, AND PROPRIETARY PRODUCTS

4.1 Lumber

4.1.1 Kinds of Lumber

4.1.2 Lumber Finish and Sizes

4.1.3 Stress Grading and Design Values

4.1.4 Adjustment Factors for Sawn Lumber Design Values

4.2 Engineered Wood Products

4.2.1 Glued Laminated Timber

4.2.2 Structural Composite Lumber

4.2.3 I-Joists

4.2.4 Wood Trusses

4.3 Plywood

4.3.1 Construction and Sizes Available

4.3.2 Types and Grades

4.3.3 Overlaid Plywood

4.3.4 Textured Surfaces

4.3.5 Strength Properties

4.3.6 Bending Plywood to Curved Surfaces

4.4 Other Framing and Facing Materials

4.4.1 Reconstituted Wood Materials

4.4.2 Steel

4.4.3 Aluminum

4.4.4 Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer

4.4.5 Other Polymeric Form Materials

4.4.6 Fabric and Porous Forms

4.4.7 Form Lining Materials

4.4.8 Insulation and Insulating Forms

4.5 Hardware and Fasteners

4.5.1 Nails

4.5.2 Wood Screws

4.5.3 Bolts, Lag Screws, and Other Connectors

4.5.4 Ties

4.5.5 Anchors

4.5.6 Hangers

4.5.7 Friction Collars and Support Brackets

4.5.8 Spacers and Spreaders

4.5.9 Steel Strapping

4.5.10 Column Clamps

4.6 Prefabricated Forms

4.6.1 Panel Forms and Forming Systems

4.6.2 Pans and Domes for Concrete Joist Construction

4.6.3 Void and Duct Forms

4.6.4 Column Forms

4.6.5 Stay-In-Place Forms

4.6.6 Special Purpose and Custom-Made Forms

4.7 Shoring

4.7.1 Single-Post Shores

4.7.2 Shoring Frames

5: LOADS AND PRESSURES

5.1 Notation for Loads and Pressures

5.2 Load Combinations

5.2.1 ASD Combinations

5.2.2 LRFD Combinations

5.3 Vertical Loads

5.3.1 Dead Loads

5.3.2 Live Loads

5.4 Lateral Pressure of Fresh Concrete

5.4.1 Factors Affecting Lateral Pressure

5.4.2 History of Lateral Pressure Values for Form Design

5.4.3 Lateral pressure of concrete equations

5.4.4 Bottom-Up Pumping of Concrete

5.4.5 Column Forms

5.4.6 Wall Forms

5.4.7 Pressure on Sloping Surfaces

5.5 Horizontal Loads

5.5.1 Minimum Horizontal Loads

5.5.2 Wind Loads

5.5.3 Shielding from Wind Pressure

5.5.4 Design Wind Load

5.5.5 Wind Load on Wall and Column Forms

5.5.6 Wind Loads on Elevated Slab Formwork

5.5.7 Starting and Stopping Equipment Loads

5.5.8 Seismic Loads

5.6 Other Loads

6: SHORING AND FLOOR LOADS IN MULTI-STORY STRUCTURES

6.1 Shoring of Multi-story Concrete Structures during Construction

6.2 Shoring and Reshoring Loads in Multi-story Structures

6.2.1 Analyzing the Loads

6.2.2 Comparison of Example Analysis Results

6.3 Backshoring

6.4 Drophead Shores

6.5 LRFD Analysis

6.6 Shoring System Design

6.7 Determining Concrete Strength for Stripping and Loading for Cycle Times

6.7.1 Analysis and Design Process for Slab Strength

6.7.2 Alternative Load Distributions

6.7.3 More Concentrated Shore Loads

6.7.4 Structures Designed for Composite Action

6.7.5 Post-Tensioned Structures

6.8 Effect of Early Loading on Slab Deflection

6.9 Monitoring Early Strength Gain of Concrete in the Field

6.9.1 Field-Cured Cylinders

6.9.2 Alternate Tests

7: DESIGN OF SLAB, WALL, BEAM, AND COLUMN FORMS

7.1 Notation

7.2 Basic Simplifications

7.3 Beam Formulas

7.4 Design Criteria for Wood Beams

7.4.1 Stresses and Deformations

7.4.2 Bending

7.4.3 Deflection

7.4.4 Shear

7.4.5 Bearing

7.5 Form Design

7.6 Wall Form Design

7.7 Slab Form Design

7.8 Beam Form Design

7.9 Column Form Design

7.9.1 Types of Column Forms

7.9.2 General Design Procedure

7.10 Form Accessories

7.10.1 Ties

7.10.2 Bearing Plates or Washers

7.10.3 Hangers

8: DESIGN OF FORM SHORES AND BRACING

8.1 Shoring and Bracing Members

8.2 Solid Wood Compression Members

8.3 Tubular Steel Shores

8.3.1 Slenderness Ratio

8.3.2 Compression Strength

8.3.3 Steel Shoring Frames

8.4 Other Manufactured Shoring Devices

8.5 Support for Shoring

8.6 Bracing for Lateral Loads

8.6.1 Wall Form Bracing Loads

8.6.2 Design of Braces

8.6.3 Bracing of Slab Forms Supported by Individual Shores

8.6.4 Design of Wood Bracing Connections

8.7 Camber and Adjustment for Settlement

8.7.1 Anticipated Deflection or Settlement of Formwork

8.7.2 Deflection of the Finished Structure

8.7.3 Total Allowance for Camber and Adjustments

8.8 Anchorage of braces

8.8.1 Deadmen

8.8.2 Concrete anchors

8.8.3 Ground anchors

8.8.4 Anchors

9: DESIGN TABLES

9.1 Equations for Calculating Safe Span

9.2 Sheathing Design: Tables 9.3 to 9.5 9-4

9.3 Joists, Studs, and Beams: Tables 9.4 to 9.8 9-4

9.4 Double Members: Tables 9.9 to 9.11 9-5

9.5 Wood Shores: Tables 9.12 and 9.13 9-5

9.6 Form Design Using the Tables 9-7

10: FORMWORK DRAWINGS

10.1 Preparing Effective Drawings

10.2 Line Drawings

10.3 General Layout and Detail Drawings

10.4 Checklist of Details

10.5 Recheck for Agreement with Structural Drawings

10.6 Drawing Review

10.7 BIM 3-D Graphical Views of Formwork

11: BUILDING AND ERECTING THE FORMWORK

11.1 Form Fabrication

11.1.1 Location of Shop at Project Site

11.1.2 Storage of Materials and Finished Parts

11.1.3 Equipment and Layout

11.2 Formwork Erection Safety

11.3 Footings

11.3.1 Wall Footings

11.3.2 Column Footings

11.4 Slab-on-Ground and Paving Work

11.4.1 Slabs-on-Ground

11.4.2 Highway and Airport Paving

11.4.3 Curb and Gutter Forms

11.5 Wall Forms

11.5.1 Job-Built Forms

11.5.2 Prefabricated Panel Systems

11.5.3 Ganged Panel Forms and Climbing Forms

11.5.4 Blind Side and Single-Side Wall Forming

11.5.5 Square Corners

11.5.6 Pilasters

11.5.7 Curved Walls and Round Corners

11.5.8 Wall Openings

11.5.9 Joints

11.5.10 Forms for External Vibration

11.5.11 ACI Tolerances for Walls

11.6 Column Forms

11.6.1 Erection Practices

11.6.2 Square or Rectangular Columns

11.6.3 Round and Flared Columns

11.6.4 Column Heads

11.6.5 ACI Column Tolerances

11.7 Beam or Girder Forms

11.7.1 Beam Bottoms

11.7.2 Beam Sides

11.7.3 Panel Assembly and Erection

11.7.4 Suspended Forms for Fireproofing and Composite Construction

11.7.5 Beam and Girder Tolerances

11.8 Slab Forms

11.8.1 Beam and Slab Construction

11.8.2 Flat Plates and Flat Slabs

11.8.3 Concrete Joist Construction

11.8.4 Flying Form Systems

11.8.5 Adjustable Steel Beams

11.8.6 Slabs Supported on Steel Beams or Precast Concrete Beams

11.8.7 Metal Decking

11.8.8 ACI Tolerances for Slab Work

11.9 Shoring

11.9.1 Shore Layout and Installation

11.9.2 Mudsills or Shoring Foundations

11.9.3 Wood Shores

11.9.4 Adjustable Shores

11.9.5 Drophead Shore Systems

11.9.6 Shoring Towers

11.9.7 Adjustment and Jacking

11.9.8 Permanent Shores and Back Shores

11.9.9 Composite Construction

12: USING THE FORMS

12.1 Placing Reinforcement and Inserts

12.1.1 Support for Reinforcing Bars

12.1.2 Positioning Bars; Placement Tolerances

12.2 Preparation for Concreting

12.2.1 Form Release Agents

12.2.2 Sticking and Staining Problems

12.2.3 Use of Water on the Forms

12.3 Inspection and Form Watching

12.3.1 Before Concreting

12.3.2 During and After Concreting

12.4 Placing and Vibrating—Effect on Formwork

12.5 Removal of Forms and Shores

12.5.1 Stripping Time Based on Concrete Strength

12.5.2 Form Removal Related to Curing Needs

12.5.3 Stripping Techniques

12.5.4 Multi-Story Buildings

12.6 Reshoring

12.7 Care and Storage of Forms and Accessories

12.8 Cold Weather Protection

12.8.1 Form Insulation and Heating

12.8.2 Avoiding Thermal Shock

13: FORMED CONCRETE SURFACE QUALITY

13.1 Overview of ACI 301 Formed Surface Provisions

13.1.1 General Requirements

13.1.2 As-Cast Surface Finishes

13.1.3 Rubbed Surface Finishes

13.2 Overview of ACI 347.3R Formed Concrete Surface Provisions

13.2.1 Determination of Surface Void Ratio

13.2.2 Specifications

13.2.3 Design Considerations

13.2.4 Construction

13.2.5 Evaluation of formed concrete surfaces and repair procedures

14: FORMWORK FOR ARCHITECTURAL CONCRETE

14.1 Specifications: Defining Quality

14.2 Architectural Formwork Design

14.2.1 Loads and Pressures

14.2.2 Design Standards

14.2.3 Formwork Details

14.3 Exposed Concrete Surfaces

14.3.1 Smooth As-Cast Surfaces

14.3.2 Textured As-Cast Surfaces

14.3.3 Precast Panels as Forms or Liners

14.4 Construction of Forms for Architectural Concrete

14.4.1 Walls

14.4.2 Columns and Pilasters

14.4.3 Spandrels and Parapets

14.4.4 Soffits

14.4.5 Cantilevers

14.4.6 Ornamental Detail

14.4.7 Erection Practices

14.4.8 Construction and Contraction Joints

14.5 Stripping

14.6 Cleanup and Repair

15: BRIDGE FORMWORK

15.1 Foundations

15.1.1 Caissons

15.1.2 Piles

15.1.3 Rock or Soil Offering Direct Support

15.2 Piers

15.2.1 Forms Moved for Reuse

15.2.2 Round Piers

15.2.3 Stonework Facing

15.2.4 Massive Piers

15.2.5 Vertical Alignment

15.2.6 Access for Workers

15.2.7 External Ties

15.2.8 Pier Caps and Tie Struts

15.3 Superstructures

15.3.1 Monolithic—Simple Slab, Beam, and Girder

15.3.2 Cast-in-Place Deck Supported on Steel or Precast Girders

15.3.3 Expansion Joints

15.3.4 Overhang, Sidewalks, Parapets, and Median Barriers

15.3.5 Support for Superstructure Forms

15.3.6 Stripping Bridge Forms

15.4 Arch Bridges

15.5 Segmental Box-Girder Bridge Construction

15.5.1 Cast-in-Place Segmental Construction

15.5.2 Precast Segmental Construction

15.5.3 Principal Erection Methods

15.5.4 Making Precast Bridge Segments

15.5.5 Voids, Inserts, Attachments

15.5.6 Joint Surfaces

15.5.7 Vibration

15.5.8 Heat Curing Considerations

15.5.9 Tolerance Requirements

16: MASS CONCRETE FORMWORK

16.1 Types of Cantilever Forms in Common Use

16.2 Design Considerations

16.2.1 Loads on the Formwork

16.2.2 Anchorage Accessories

16.2.3 Other Design Features

16.3 Handling, Erecting, Stripping

16.4 Non-Cantilevered Formwork

16.5 Facings for Roller-Compacted Mass Concrete and Dam Repair

16.6 Foundations or Starting Lifts

16.7 Curing, Joint Cleanup, Insulation

16.8 Planning and Supervision

16.9 Tolerances

17: TUNNEL AND SHAFT FORMWORK

17.1 Tunnel Forming Components

17.1.1 Curb Forms

17.1.2 Invert Forms

17.1.3 Arch Forms

17.1.4 Form Traveler Operations

17.2 Concrete Placement Methods

17.2.1 Continuous Advancing Slope

17.2.2 Bulkhead Method

17.2.3 Cut-and-Cover Construction

17.3 General Design Considerations

17.3.1 Influence of Placing Equipment

17.3.2 Loads and Pressures

17.3.3 Vibration and Form Access

17.4 Form Construction

17.5 Stripping Time

17.6 Tolerances

17.7 Shafts

18: SPECIAL TECHNIQUES IN CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION

18.1 Vertical Slipform Construction

18.1.1 Design and Construction Considerations

18.1.2 Jacking System

18.1.3 Sliding Operations

18.2 Horizontal Slip Forms

18.2.1 Design and Construction Considerations

18.2.2 Horizontal Applications

18.3 Tilt-Up

18.3.1 Curing and Bond-Breaking Compounds

18.3.2 Curved Tilt-Up Panels

18.4 Lift Method of Construction

18.4.1 Forming and Casting

18.4.2 Slab Separation

18.5 Shells, Domes, and Folded Plates

18.5.1 Shell Form Design Considerations

18.5.2 Building the Forms

18.5.3 Placing Concrete

18.5.4 Form Removal

18.5.5 Inflated Forming Methods

18.6 Traveling Forms

18.6.1 Applications

18.6.2 Design Considerations

18.7 Preplaced Aggregate Concrete

18.7.1 Lateral Pressure

18.7.2 Form Construction and Materials

18.8 Shotcrete

18.9 Tremie Concrete

18.10 Precast Concrete

18.10.1 Advantages of Precasting

18.10.2 Formwork Requirements

18.10.3 Stripping

18.10.4 Erection and Joints

18.11 Prestressed Precast Concrete

18.11.1 Forms for Post-Tensioning

18.11.2 Forms for Pretensioning

APPENDIX A—REFERENCED STANDARDS AND REPORTS

APPENDIX B—NOTATION

APPENDIX C—GLOSSARY

APPENDIX D—CONVERSIONS

APPENDIX E—ACI 347R-14 GUIDE TO FORMWORK FOR CONCRETE

APPENDIX F—ACI 318-11 CODE AND COMMENTARY

PROVISIONS RELATED TO FORMWORK

APPENDIX G—OSHA REGULATIONS FOR FORMWORK AND SHORING

APPENDIX H—PROBLEMS

INDEX

ERRATA INFO

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