228.1R-19: Report on Methods for Estimating In-Place Concrete Strength

228.1R-19: Report on Methods for Estimating In-Place Concrete Strength

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Description

This report provides methods for estimating the in-place strength of concrete in new and existing construction. These methods include: rebound number, penetration resistance, pullout, pull-off, ultrasonic pulse velocity, maturity, and cast-in-place cylinders. The principle, inherent limitations, and repeatability of each method are reviewed. Procedures are presented for developing the relationship needed to estimate compressive strength from in-place results. Factors to consider in planning in-place tests are discussed, and statistical techniques to interpret test results are presented. The use of in-place tests for acceptance of concrete is introduced. The Appendix A provides information on the number of strength levels that should be used to develop the strength relationship and explains a regression analysis procedure that accounts for error in both dependent and independent variables.

Keywords: coefficient of variation; compressive strength; construction safety; in-place tests; nondestructive tests; sampling; statistical analysis.

 

Document Details

Author: ACI Committee 228

Pages: 48.00

ISBN: 9781641950503

Categories: Nondestructive Evaluation

Formats: PDF

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1—INTRODUCTION

1.1—Scope

1.2—Need for in-place tests during construction

1.3—Influence of ACI 318

1.4—Recommendations in other ACI documents

1.5—Existing construction

1.6—Report objective

CHAPTER 2—NOTATION AND DEFINITIONS

2.1—Notation

2.2—Definitions

CHAPTER 3—REVIEW OF METHODS

3.1—Introduction

3.2—Rebound number (ASTM C805/C805M)

3.3—Penetration resistance (ASTM C803/C803M)

3.4—Pullout test (ASTM C900)

3.5—Pull-off test (ASTM C1583/C1583M)

3.6—Ultrasonic pulse velocity (ASTM C597)

3.7—Maturity method (ASTM C1074)

3.8—Cast-in-place cylinders (ASTM C873/C873M)

3.9—Strength limitations

3.10—Combined methods

3.11—Summary

CHAPTER 4—STATISTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TEST RESULTS

4.1—Need for statistical analysis

4.2—Repeatability of test results

CHAPTER 5—DEVELOPMENT OF STRENGTH RELATIONSHIP

5.1—General

5.2—New construction

5.3—Existing construction

CHAPTER 6—IMPLEMENTATION OF IN-PLACE TESTING

6.1—New construction

6.2—Existing construction

CHAPTER 7—INTERPRETING AND REPORTING RESULTS

7.1—General

7.2—Statistical methods

7.3—Reporting results

CHAPTER 8—IN-PLACE TESTS FOR ACCEPTANCE OF CONCRETE IN NEW CONSTRUCTION

8.1—General

8.2—Acceptance criteria

8.3—Early-age testing

CHAPTER 9—REFERENCES

Authored documents

APPENDIX A

A.1—Minimum number of strength levels

A.2—Regression analysis with X-error (Mandel 1984)

A.3—Standard deviation of estimated Y-value (Stone and Reeve 1986)

A.4—Example

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