Formwork Pressures and Cement Replacement by Fly Ash

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Title: Formwork Pressures and Cement Replacement by Fly Ash

Author(s): N. J. Gardner,

Publication: Concrete International

Volume: 6

Issue: 10

Appears on pages(s): 50-55

Keywords: concrete construction; fly ash; formwork (construction); fresh concretes; lateral pressure; loads (forces); placing; temperature; vibration.

Date: 10/1/1984

Abstract:
A continuing experimental investigation into factors influencing the pressure exerted by fresh concrete on vertical form faces is described. The conclusion is that formwork pressures increase with the rate of place-ment, vibrator immersion, slump, decrease in temperature, and increasing percentage cement replacement by fly ash. An equation is developed to conservatively calculate lateral pressures for formwork design purposes.