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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Gap-Graded Mixes for Cast-in -Place Exposed Aggregate Concrete
Author(s): Albert Litvin and Donald W. Pfeifer
Publication: Journal Proceedings
Appears on pages(s): 521-538
Keywords: aggregate, architectural concrete, bushhammering, cast-in place concrete, exposed aggregate, field application, gap-graded aggregate, proporioning, sandblasting
Abstract:Attractive uniform exposed aggregate surfaces of cast-in- place concrete may be achieved by the use of low-slump, gap-graded aggregate mixes. These mixes required a high percentage of coarse aggregate and low water-cement ratio, resulting in excellent strength and elastic properties with low creep and drying shrinkage. laboratory tests and field experience indicate that con-cretes with matrix volumes (air, water, cement, and sand) of 45 to 50 percent can be satisfactorily consolidated and will possess excellent architectural characteristics. The importance of special care in such matters as taping of form joints, proper treatment of form ties, adequate vibration, etc., is stressed. Three typical structures are cited in which cast-in-place, gap-graded concrete was used to obtain ex-cellent exposed aggregate surfaces.
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