In today’s market, it is imperative to be knowledgeable and have an edge over the competition. ACI members have it…they are engaged, informed, and stay up to date by taking advantage of benefits that ACI membership provides them.
Read more about membership
Become an ACI Member
Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
American Concrete Institute
38800 Country Club Dr.
Farmington Hills, MI
Feedback via Email
Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Changes in Properties of Portland Cement and Their Effects on Concrete Durability
Author(s): G. J. Osborne and J. L. Hardcastle
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 1411-1432
Keywords: Carbonation; chlorides; compressive strength; corrosion; durability;
permeability; physical properties; portland cement; seawater.
Abstract:paper summarises results of studies carried out at the Building Research Establishment on the performance and longer term durability at 5 years of two concretes, which contained different normal portland cements, designed to give equal 28-day compressive strength by adjusting the cement contents and water/cement ratios. The two cements were chosen to provide examples of normal Portland cements with the widest difference in tricalcium silicate (C3S) content. It was necessary to obtain the low C3S cement from Israel to satisfy this requirement. The cements originating from the UK and Israel, had C3S contents of 67 and 33.5%, and tricalcium aluminate (C3A) contents of 8.4 and 12.3%, respectively. The concretes assessed were of similar mixture proportions, although an extra 25 kg of the low C3S cement and a lower water/cement ratio were required compared with the high C3S cement, to achieve equal 28-day strength concretes of 40 (-+ 2) MN/m2. Several types of concrete specimens were prepared using two curing regimes (wet and dry-curing), before carrying out a range of long-term tests. These included: compressive strength, seawater attack rating, carbonation, oxygen permeability, chloride ingress, and corrosion of rebar. This study showed that by designing concretes to give equal 28-day strengths, but using high-early strength cements, concrete performance should be quite satisfactory in most indoor and outdoor environments. However, concrete durability may be compromised, even with good curing, if the cement content is not sufficient or the w/c is too high for certain severe exposure conditions, such as in the marine tidal zone. In such cases the reduced cement content and higher w/c could result in discernible loss in long term strength development and reduced durability. These data are of direct relevance to the UK concrete industry practice and support the approach adopted in the current British Standards and Codes of Practice of specifying concrete in terms of minimum cement content and maximum W/C, as well as by minimum strength grade, rather than by 28-day strength attainment.
Click here to become an online Journal subscriber