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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Dry-Mix Coarse-Aggregate Shotcrete as Underground Support
Author(s): Helmut G. Kobler
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 33-58
Abstract:Experience with dry-mix coarse-aggregate shotcrete, applied in layers up to about 6 in. thick, has proved it structurally adequate for both temporary and permanent underground support. Recommended ingredients, mix proportioning, and application techniques are explained, and mixing and placing devices are described in some detail. Recommendations for testing and quality control pro-cedures are outlined. How coarse-aggregate shotcrete meets requirements for various types of tunnel work is shown with details of its use on specific projects. Cost is compared with that of conventional tunnel support media.
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