Strength of Concrete Containing Secondary Cementing Materials


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Title: Strength of Concrete Containing Secondary Cementing Materials

Author(s): Birger Warris

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 79


Appears on pages(s): 539-558

Keywords: compressive strength; concretes; fly ash; portland -- pozzolan cements; silica; water-cement ratio.

Date: 5/1/1983

The paper describes a model for the calculation of the strength of concrete with secondary materials. The model is based upon the type of correlation between strength and water-cement ratio (or water + air to cement ratio) originally suggested by Feret and later modified by Bolomey. An important additional parameter is introduced, viz: Er = efficiency function, describing the influence of the secondary material on the concrete strength The variation of E has been studied by means of experiments dea-ling with the binding of CaO or with the strength of concrete containing fly ash or silica fume. The study leads to a formula for strength: f c = KB(l + ${p,)) (A - kB) where HP,) = k,P, for fly ash $Cp,) = 1 - (1 - P,)~ for silica fume P is the relative quantity of secondary material, kn and n characteristics of its binding capacity. The formulae have been verified by means of a great number of test results, mainly from France and Scandinavia. The paper contributes to a balanced technical evaluation of secondary materials and to rational mix design.