Application of High-Strength Concrete in Norway

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Title: Application of High-Strength Concrete in Norway

Author(s): Steinar Helland

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 167

Issue:

Appears on pages(s): 27-54

Keywords: Abrasion resistance; diffusion; high-strength concretes; silica fume; water-reducing agents.

Date: 3/1/1997

Abstract:
High strength concrete (HSC) is defined by FIP/CEB as “concrete with a cylinder strength above 60 MPa (-87OOpsi) and up to 130 MPa (-18900 psi), the practical upper limit for concretes with ordinary aggregates. It also includes lightweight aggregate concrete with a cement paste of similar properties “. FIP/CEB similarly regards high performance concrete as material with water-binder ratio (w/b) less than 0.40 According to these definitions all concrete installations built in Norway in the 1990s for the oil and gas-fields in the North Sea and most highway structures are built with HSC/HPC. This amounts to about 20 - 25 % of our total domestic concrete production. Norway was the first nation in the world to have HSC with characteristic cube strengths up to 105 MPa (~ 15300 psi) incorporated in its code of design, NS 3473, in 1989. This paper describes the main Norwegian experience by using these qualities in full scale. The presentation is supplemented by some case studies illustrating some typical applications. The main lesson from some 15 years experience is that the introduction of these “hi-tech” concrete grades should be accompanied by a proper upgrading of the workforce’s competence on all levels to ensure the intended quality.