Influence of C3 A Content of Cement on Frost and Scaling Resistance of Concrete

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Title: Influence of C3 A Content of Cement on Frost and Scaling Resistance of Concrete

Author(s): J. Stark and H. M. Ludwig

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 177

Issue:

Appears on pages(s): 207-218

Keywords: air void; deicers; ettringite; frost; scaling

Date: 1/1/1999

Abstract:
The effects of chemical transformation processes on the frost and frost-deicing salt resistance of concrete are much less significant than the physical effects, but they are nevertheless significant. Our investigations showed that monosulfate (AFm phase) is particularly instable and will transform to ettringite (AFt phase) under frost and also under frost-deicing salt attack. This delayed formation of ettringite, which is supported by thermodynamic conditions at low temperatures, may reduce considerably the frost and frost deicing salt resistance of concretes without air-entrainment.