A Procedure for Determining P-Wave Speed in Concrete for Use in Impact-Echo Testing Using a Rayleigh Wave Speed Measurement Technique

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Title: A Procedure for Determining P-Wave Speed in Concrete for Use in Impact-Echo Testing Using a Rayleigh Wave Speed Measurement Technique

Author(s): Jiunn-Ming Lin and Mary Sansalone

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 168

Issue:

Appears on pages(s): 137-166

Keywords: errors; impact tests; nondestructive tests; pavements; plates (structural members); thickness

Date: 4/1/1997

Abstract:
Dilatational or P-wave speed in concrete is needed in impact-echo testing if the dimensions of structural elements or the location of flaws is to be determined. Previously the P-wave speed had to be determined from cores or from performing a test on a portion of the structure having known dimensions and no flaws. In cases where neither approach was possible, an estimate had to be made of the wave speed. This paper presents the details of a method for independently determining P-wave speed in concrete using a Rayleigh-wave speed measurement between two points on the surface. Such a procedure increases the power, versatility, and ease of use of the impact-echo method. In this paper the Rayleigh wave speed procedure is explained. Systematic errors involved in the measurement procedure areexamined, and the accuracies that can be expected using the procedure in conjunction with the impact-echo test procedure are discussed. Appropriate uses of the procedure are given, and the limitations of the method are stated. It is shown that the Rayleigh wave technique is an easy to use technique for estimating wave speeds. Typically, speeds within about 4% of the actual wave speed can be obtained.