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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Calcined Paper Sludge-Pozzolanic Admixture to Improve Sulfate Resistance of Concrete
Author(s): S. Rols, J. Ambroise, J. Pera, and M. Chabannet
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 353-368
Keywords: ammonium compounds; expansion; gypsum; microstructure
Abstract:Ammonium sulfate-(NH4)2SO4-is harmful to concrete as it reacts with calcium hydroxide to form expansive gypsum which, in the presence of aluminates, may in turn give expansive ettringite. The improvement in the ammonium sulfate resistance induced by pozzolanic additions does not always seem to be effective, and it has been reported that some low C3A portland cements are able to resist ammonium sulfate attack better than blended cements containing silica fume. A new admixture, calcined paper sludge, which is a mixture of metakaolin and calcium carbonate, was used to improve the resistance o both portland cement and ground-granulated blast furnace cement to 20% ammonium sulfate solution. Five concrete samples containing a cementitious material content of 350 kg/m3 were subjected to sulfate attack in alternate wetting-drying cycles. After 4 or 5 cycles, only concrete made with blast-furnace slag cement and containing the calcined sludge presented some residual strength, a small mass loss, and lower expansion. The microstructural studies by SEM showed that after the sulfate attack, gypsum was present at the aggregate-paste interfaces, and the size of gypsum crystals depended upon the binder used.
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