In today’s market, it is imperative to be knowledgeable and have an edge over the competition. ACI members have it…they are engaged, informed, and stay up to date by taking advantage of benefits that ACI membership provides them.
Read more about membership
Become an ACI Member
Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
American Concrete Institute
38800 Country Club Dr.
Farmington Hills, MI
Chat with Us Online Now
Feedback via Email
Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Efficiency Factors (k-Values) for Supplementary Cementing Materials Regarding Carbonation and Chloride Penetration
Author(s): V. G. Papadakis
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 173-188
Keywords: carbonation; cholrides; fly ash; mortar; silica fume
Abstract:For comparing the relative performance of supplementary cementing materials (SCM) with regard to concrete durability, the concept of efficiency factor may be used. The efficiency factor (k-value) is defined as the part of the SCM in an SCM-concrete which can be considered as equivalent to portland cement. In this work, three typical SCM were studied: a silica fume, a low-calcium fly ash and a high-calcium fly ash. Accelerated carbonation and chloride penetration tests were performed. With regard to 28-day compressive strengths, penetration test were performed. With regard to 28-day compressive strengths, k-values of 3, .5, and 1 for silica fume, low-calcium fly ash, and high-calcium fly ash, respectively, were estimated. Mathematical models describing the carbonation propagation and chloride intrusion were applied to estimate the durability k-values. Higher k-values with respect to chloride penetration were found, indicating that SCM reduce the chloride permeability more effectively than they improve the compressive strength. On the contrary, with respect to carbonation depth, k-values of .3, .5, and .7 for silica fume, low-calcium fly ash and high-calcium fly ash, respectively, were estimated. A theoretical explanation of these results is also given.
Click here to become an online Journal subscriber