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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Rapid Estimation of Water-Cementitious Ratio and Chloride Ion Diffusivity in Hardened and Plastic Concrete by Resistivity Measurement
Author(s): K. A. MacDonald and D. O. Northwood
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 57-68
Keywords: chloride resistivity; diffusivity; durability; fly ash; silica fume; slag
Abstract:The water/cementitious ratio of concrete is an important indicator of quality of concrete in the numerous ways that have been chosen to measure it. Low water/cementitious ratio concretes are high strength, low permeability, high durability and permanent concretes. It is also a property which is not frequently measured at the time of construction or on concretes which undergo distress during their service life due to the lack of standardized test methods and cheap test procedures for determining this property. In the present study, the use of electrical resistance measurements to estimate the water cementitious ratio and chloride ion diffusivity in terms of water cementitious ratio, compressive strength of concrete is explored. Both hardened and plastic concretes were studied, over a wide range of water/cementitious ratios. Supplementary cementing materials, paste volume fractions and admixture chemistries were varied as well. The results indicate that a rapid, field portable test can be used to estimate the water/cementitious ratio of plastic concrete delivered to the site, as well as samples of hardened concrete removed from structures. Use of the formation factor analogy to describe the pore system and measurements of the total pore volume allow an estimate of the transport properties of the concrete, such as diffusivity and permeability. Properties estimated by this technique are compared to those determined using the standard determination methods. The implications of using assumed pore solution characteristics are discussed. The method developed is potentially useful in both Quality Assurance and Quality Control testing of high performance structures. Additional work is required to develop a field test.
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