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Title: Cracked Continuum Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Elements under Impact

Author(s): Serhan Guner, Trevor D. Hrynyk, and Andac Lulec

Publication: Symposium Paper

Volume: 347


Appears on pages(s): 85-105

Keywords: axisymmetric, erosion, frame, missile, perforation, shear, shell, smeared, solid, strain rates

DOI: 10.14359/51732659

Date: 3/1/2021


Current computational modeling approaches used to evaluate the impact-resisting performance of reinforced concrete infrastructure generally consist of high-fidelity modeling techniques which are expensive in terms of both model preparation and computation cost; thus, their application to real-word structural engineering problems remains limited. Further, modeling shear, erosion, and perforation effects presents as a significant challenge, even when using expensive high-fidelity computational techniques. To address these challenges, a simplified nonlinear modeling methodology has been developed. This paper focuses on this simplified methodology which employs a smeared-crack continuum material model based on the constitutive formulations of the Disturbed Stress Field Model. The smeared-crack model has the benefit of simplifying the modeling process and reducing the computational cost. The total-load, secant-stiffness formulation provides well-converging and numerically stable solutions even in the heavily damaged stages of the responses. The methodology uses an explicit time-step integration method and incorporates the effects of high strain rates in the behavioral modeling of the constituent materials. Structural damping is primarily incorporated by way of nonlinear concrete and reinforcement hysteresis models and significant secondorder mechanisms are considered. The objective of this paper is to present a consistent reinforced concrete modeling methodology within the context of four structural modeling procedures employing different element types (e.g., 2D frames, 3D thick-shells, 3D solids, and 2D axisymmetric elements). The theoretical approach common to all procedures and unique aspects and capabilities of each procedure are discussed. The application and verification of each procedure for modeling different types of large-scale specimens, subjected to multiple impacts with contact velocities ranging from 8 m/s (26.2 ft/s) to 144 m/s (472 ft/s), and impacting masses ranging from 35 kg (77.2 lb) to 600 kg (1323 lb), are presented to examine their accuracy, reliability, and practicality.