Concrete Q & A: Cold Weather Effects


  • The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.

International Concrete Abstracts Portal


Title: Concrete Q & A: Cold Weather Effects

Author(s): Ward Malisch

Publication: Concrete International

Volume: 32

Issue: 4

Appears on pages(s): 80


Date: 4/1/2010

We’ve completed concrete placement for a 14 in. (360 mm) thick retaining wall. Our concrete mixture contains 517 lb of Type I cement per cubic yard (308 kg/m3), has a specified water-cement ratio of 0.45, and an air content of about 6%. The weather has been cold, but we adhered to cold weather concreting requirements in Table 3.2.1 in ACI 306.1.1 The concrete temperature was over 50°F (10°C) during placement, and we used a heated and properly vented enclosure to maintain the formwork and concrete surface temperatures at about 50°F for 3 days. The day after we removed the enclosure, the ambient temperature dropped to about 20°F (–7°C) for a week, but the concrete surface temperature never went below 25°F (–4°C). The temperature is now above freezing, and we think the concrete has achieved approximately 30% of its 28-day design strength. Are we safe to assume that the concrete won’t be harmed with continued cold temperatures?