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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Development Length for Straight Deformed Bars in High-Strength Concrete
Author(s): F. A. Al-Jahdali, F. F. Wafa, and S. A. Shihata
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 507-522
Keywords: compressive strength; deformed reinforcement; failure; high-strength concretes; pullout tests; reinforcing steels; Structural Research
Abstract:Experimental results on the bond behavior of high-strength concrete are presented. A total of 36 specimens was tested. The variables were the concrete compressive strength, the bar diameter, and the embedded length. The concrete compressive strength varied from 42 to 78 MPa (6000 to 11,000 psi). The bar diameters were 14, 16, 18, and 20 mm. The bond tests were conducted using a modified version of the Danish Standard DS 2082 pullout test in which the concrete surrounding the bar was in uniform tension. The test results indicate that the average bond stress at failure increases with the increase in the concrete compressive strength and decreases with the increase in the embedded length. The embedded length calculated using the ACI Building Code 318-89 equation caused a steel yielding failure. The predominant type of failure was the splitting of concrete; however, yielding of the embedded steel preceded the splitting failure in more than half of the specimens. It was observed that the ACI Building Code equation underestimates average bond stress for high-strength concrete. A model is developed to predict the bond strength of high-strength concrete in terms of the concrete cover, bar diameter, embedded length, and concrete compressive strength as variables. The proposed equation gave good prediction to the bond stress at failure of the pullout specimens tested in this investigation. 260-594
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