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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Durability of Parking Structures: Analysis of Field Survey
Author(s): G. G. Liitvan and J. A. Bickley
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 1503-1526
Keywords: air entrainment; concrete durability; chlorides; corrosion; parking facilities; patching; repairs; surveys; waterproofing; Construction
Abstract:A total of 215 garages in Toronto, Ottawa, and Montreal, Canada, have been surveyed to various extents by assessing delamination, half-cell potential, depth of cover, and component condition. In addition, tests were carried out on cores, in which chloride content, compressive strength, and chloride permeability were determined and the air void system was analyzed. The evidence indicates that durable garages can be built, and that poor performance must be attributed to design and construction practices, the effectiveness of which falls short of that required by the environment. It follows that almost all previously built garages will eventually require repair unless upgraded before the chloride concentration of the concrete reaches a critical level. Repair by the patch and waterproof method was found to decrease the rate of corrosion of deteriorated garages by approximately 70 percent. Detrimental effects following installation of a waterproofing membrane over concrete with elevated chloride concentration were not observed. No relation was detected between extent of delamination and crack density or compressive strength. Half-cell potential did not prove more sensitive than the chain-drag test in detecting delamination.
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