In today’s market, it is imperative to be knowledgeable and have an edge over the competition. ACI members have it…they are engaged, informed, and stay up to date by taking advantage of benefits that ACI membership provides them.
Read more about membership
Become an ACI Member
Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
American Concrete Institute
38800 Country Club Dr.
Farmington Hills, MI
Feedback via Email
Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Investigation of Concrete Deterioration Due toSulfate Attack--A Case History
Author(s): Vladimir Novokshchenov
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 1979-2006
Keywords: chemical tests; chlorides; corrosion; deterioration; ettringite; expansion; exposure; gypsum; magnesium sulfates; marine atmospheres; reinforced concrete; reinforcing steels; salt water; seawater; sodium chloride; subsurface structures; sulfate attack; D
Abstract:In coastal areas of Saudi Arabia underground reinforced concrete structures are frequently exposed to aggressive action of saline water and sulfate-bearing groundwater. The extent of deterioration varies from negligible to very severe depending on the type of exposure and the concentration of sulfates and chlorides, as well as the quality of concrete. Deterioration of concrete is mainly due to aggressive action of magnesium sulfates, mitigated by chloride ions, and the decomposing effect of calcium sulfates from sulfate-bearing groundwater. The procedures employed to evaluate nature, extent, and rate of deterioration consisted of a condition survey, chemical analysis of groundwater and water-borne precipitates, petrographic analysis of concrete cores, and structural evaluation of the in-place concrete. After unsound concrete is replaced and deficiencies repaired, protection from further deterioration can be achieved by tanking the surfaces with several layers of hot-applied coal tar reinforced with felt and by the installation of a subsurface drain system.
Click here to become an online Journal subscriber