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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Air-Void Characteristics and Freezing and Thawing Resistance of Superplasticized Air-Entrained Concrete With High Workability
Author(s): E. Siebel
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 297-320
Keywords: admixtures; air-entrained concretes; air-entraining agents; freeze-thaw durability; microscopy; plasticizers; workability; Materials Research
Abstract:Conflicting information on the freeze-thaw resistance of superplasticized concrete is given in the literature. For this reason, the Research Centre of the German Cement Industry instigated an extensive research program. Superplasticizers based on melamine and naphthalene sulfonates were used in the main program and lignosulfate-based products in a subsidiary program. Some of these contained de-airing agents. The air-void distribution and the spacing factor were measured as well as the freeze-thaw resistance with deicing chemicals. When superplasticizers were used in a high-workability air-entrained concrete, the number of pores with a diameter up to 300 æm decreased, while the content of pores larger than 500 æm and the bubble spacing factor increased. Small pores coalesced and formed larger pores. Although the air content of the fresh concrete was sufficient, the superplasticized concrete sometimes had a spacing factor above 0.20 mm. For this reason, concrete with superplasticizers did not always have adequate freeze-thaw resistance. An influence due to the type of superplasticizer could not be detected, while the de-airing agents of the superplasticizers had a considerable effect. Some additional tests with plasticizers and retarders show that these admixtures also alter the air-void distribution or air-entrained concrete.
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