Cryogenic Frost Resistance of Lightweight Concrete Containing Silica Fume

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Title: Cryogenic Frost Resistance of Lightweight Concrete Containing Silica Fume

Author(s): Kamal Henry Khayat and Milos Polivka

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 114

Issue:

Appears on pages(s): 915-928

Keywords: cryogenics; freeze-thaw durability; lightweight concretes; liquefied gases; prestressed concrete; silica fume; storage tanks; thermal stresses; Materials Research

Date: 5/1/1989

Abstract:
Longitudinal thermal strains of high-strength, air-entrained, lightweight concrete containing silica fume were monitored during a single frost cycle between 15 and -157 C to measure the coefficients of thermal length changes at different temperatures. The immunity of such concrete to repeated exposures to liquified petroleum and natural gas temperatures was also evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to observe the deterioration of concrete prior to and after five frost cycles to -73 C. The coefficients of thermal length changes of air-dried and water-saturated concretes were calculated to be 3.2 and 4.1 x 10-6 cm/cm/C, respectively, before freezing, and 2.9 and 3.0 x 10-6 cm/cm/C at post-freezing temperatures. The strength deterioration study indicated that dried concrete cycled to -40 C can experience maximum drops in compressive and splitting tensile strengths of 7 and 3.5 percent, respectively. These reductions can be expected to increase to 15 percent if the extreme cooling temperature is lowered to -73 C. Water-saturated concrete can lose 12 to 17 percent of its initial strength after five freeze-thaw cycles to either temperature range.