Deterioration Due to Sulfate Reactions in Portland

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Title: Deterioration Due to Sulfate Reactions in Portland

Author(s): David Stark

Publication: Special Publication

Volume: 100

Issue:

Appears on pages(s): 2091-2102

Keywords: blast furnace slag; cement treated bases; deterioration; ettringite; expansion; gypsum; petrography; runways; sulfates; thaumasite; X-ray diffraction; Materials Research

Date: 4/1/1987

Abstract:
An investigation was made to determine causes of abnormal expansion and heaving of portland cement-stabilized slag aggregate base material in an airfield runway. Field inspection, petrographic examinations, x-ray diffraction studies, and chemical analyses were made in this investigation. It was concluded that deterioration was due to reactions involving cement hydration products and sulfate derived from certain slag aggregate particles. Whether expansion developed depended on the nature of the sulfate-bearing components originally present in the slag. Recognition of potential for this type of problem appears to be lacking in the published literature and in current specifications.