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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Mineralogical Investigations of High-Lime Fly Ashes
Author(s): M. Tokyay and F. H. Hubbard
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 65-78
Keywords: anhydrite; chemical analysis; clay minerals; ettringite; free lime; gypsum; hematite; hydration; lime fly ash; mineralogical analysis; pozzolanic reactions; quartz; x-ray diffraction; x-ray fluorescence; Materials Research
Abstract:High-lime fly ashes obtained from the combustion of lignites or subbituminous coals are common by-products of thermal power plants in many countries, including Turkey. Chemical analyses, mineralogical analyses, and the formation of hydration and pozzolanic reaction products at different ages of three Turkish high-lime fly ashes were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The relationships between the mineral phases in the fly ashes and the hydration and pozzolanic reaction products were investigated. Fly ash is formed at combustion temperatures of approximately 1000 C, at which the clay impurities decompose. These fly ashes contained highly reactive silica and alumina. The reaction of these oxides with the free lime and anhydrite present in two of the fly ashes led to the formation of C-S-H gel and ettringite starting with the beginning of hydration. The third fly ash, having anhydrite as the only major calcium-bearing compound, produced gypsum upon hydration. However, introduction of Ca(OH)2 into the system resulted in similar reaction products. At later ages, beside the previously mentioned products, C4ACH11 and C4AH13 were also observed in all three cases. Interpretation of the results indicated that although all three fly ashes were of high-lime type, two of them were hydraulic and autopozzolanic, whereas the third was pozzolanic only.
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