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Founded in 1904 and headquartered in Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA, the American Concrete Institute is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development, dissemination, and adoption of its consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
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Home > Publications > International Concrete Abstracts Portal
The International Concrete Abstracts Portal is an ACI led collaboration with leading technical organizations from within the international concrete industry and offers the most comprehensive collection of published concrete abstracts.
Title: Use of Thermal Measurements to Detect Potential Incompatibilities of Common Concrete Materials
Author(s): V.T. Cost and G. Knight
Publication: Special Publication
Appears on pages(s): 39-58
Keywords: aluminates; calorimetry; cement-admixture interaction; exotherm; hydration heat; incompatibility; retardation; silicates; sulfates.
Abstract:Abnormal early hydration resulting from "incompatibilities" of common concrete materials can result in erratic set and strength gain behavior and associated finishing, curing, and cracking issues. Contributing influences include high temperatures, cement sulfate levels, Class C fly ash content, chemical admixture use, and design approaches for retardation of hot-weather concrete. Simple, expedient test methods are needed to identify potentially incompatible materials and conditions and to verify appropriate modifications to concrete proportions. Thermal measurements of the early heat development of materials mixtures in the laboratory (semi-adiabatic calorimetry) have been shown very useful toward this end. Abnormal set and strength development of field concrete was reproduced in laboratory paste and mortar mixtures and studied using thermal measurements, verified by parallel mortar cube strengths. Sensitivities of various contributing influences were documented in extensive testing. Changing one or more of the key material or mixture characteristics was usually successful in restoring normal behavior. Recommendations are presented for avoiding related field issues and for the use of calorimetry testing programs for diagnosis of such problems.
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