Title: Freezing Effects in Concrete
Author(s): T.C. Powers
Publication: Symposium Paper
Appears on pages(s): 1-12
Keywords: aggregates; air entrainments; bubbles; cement pastes; concretes; cracking (fracturing); deicers; free-thaw durability; freezing; lightweight aggregate concrete; plastic shrinkage; scaling; temperature; water-cement ratio
Theories as to the mechanism of freezing and thawing damage in concrete have been advanced for more than 40 years. The author discusses the evolution of these theories for cement paste, aggregate and the overal concrete. Since the author was prominent in the development of many of the theories his current views of the mechanism of freezing and thawing in concrete are of unique interest.